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Xenentodon cancila

Xenentodon cancila
Silver Needlefish
The freshwater garfish, Xenentodon cancila is the sole member of its genus. It is found primarily in freshwater habitats, though it is sometimes found in brackish water and the sea. It is most common in rivers, but may also be found ponds, canals, and other freshwater habitats. It is the only member of the genus Xenentodon.
As a reasonably popular aquarium fish Xenentodon cancila, has been traded under a variety of common names, including needlefish, silver needlefish, Asian freshwater needlefish, needlenose halfbeak, freshwater gar, and numerous others. While belonging to the same family as the marine needlefish known in Europe as gar or garpike, Belone belone, these fish are of course much more distantly related to other fishes sometimes called gars (such as the North American Lepisosteidae and South American pike characins).
The freshwater garfish is widely distributed across South and Southeast Asia from India and Sri Lanka to the Malaysian Peninsula.
In common with other needlefish, this species has an elongate body with long, beak-like jaws filled with teeth. The dorsal and anal fins are positioned far back along the body close to the tail. The body is silvery-green, darker above and lighter below with a dark band running horizontally along the flank. Slight sexual dimorphism exists, the male fish often having anal and dorsal fins with a black edge.
The freshwater garfish is one of a handful of needlefish species kept in public and home aquaria. It has been kept by European aquarists since 1910, and was first bred in captivity at the Biological Station Wilhelminenberg, Austria in 1963. Xenentodon cancila is generally considered quite a difficult species to maintain because of its large size, nervous behaviour, and preference for live foods. Alongside misunderstandings of the natural diet of these fish, there has been confusion over the optimal water conditions required by this species when kept in home aquaria, with the addition of salt to the water often being recommended. In fact these fish do perfectly well in freshwater aquaria
躯体细长,乍看下有如一支银棒,故英文名之为“针鱼”(Needle Fish),侧扁,躯干部背、腹缘近平直,相互平行。头长,额顶部平扁。吻特别突出,由前颔骨及下颌延长形成一细长尖形的啄。口大而长,呈水平。两颌布满尖锐细齿,呈带状排列。背鳍远在体后方,与臀鳍相对;胸鳍;腹鳍较小;尾鳍徽凹。鳞细小。体背部翠绿色,体侧下部及腹部银白色,体侧自吻端通过眼睛、胸鳍基,沿体侧中线至尾鳍基部具一条较宽垦绿色纵带,各鳍翠绿色。体长约40厘米。