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Pantodon buchholzi


Pantodon buchholzi
African Butterfly Fish
非洲蝴蝶鱼
The freshwater butterflyfish or African butterflyfish, Pantodon buchholzi, is the only species in the family Pantodontidae within the Order Osteoglossiformes. It is not closely related to saltwater butterflyfishes.
Freshwater butterfly fish are small, no more than 12 centimetres in length, with very large pectoral fins. It has a large and well-vascularized swim bladder, enabling it to breath air at the surface of the water. They are carnivorous, feeding primarily on aquatic insects and smaller fishes.
The freshwater butterflyfish is a specialized surface hunter. Its eyes are constantly trained to the surface and its upturned mouth is specifically adapted to capture small prey along the water's surface. If enough speed is built up in the water, a butterflyfish can jump and glide a small distance above the surface to avoid predation. It also wiggles its pectoral fins as it glides, with the help of specialized, enlarged pectoral muscles, the ability which earned the fish its common name. 
When freshwater butterflyfish spawn, they produce a mass of large floating eggs at the surface. Fertilisation is believed to be internal. Eggs hatch in approximately seven days.
Freshwater butterflyfish are found in the slightly acidic standing bodies of water in West Africa. They require a year round temperature of 73-86°F. Butterflyfish are found in slow to no current areas with high amounts of surface foliage for cover. They are commonly seen in Lake Chad, the Congo Basin, throughout Lower Niger, Cameroon, Ogooue, and Upper Zambezi. They have also been seen in the Niger Delta, Lower Ogun, and in the Lower Cross River.
Freshwater Butterflyfish are kept as pets in an aquarium of at least 20 US gallons (76 l), although a single specimen could be maintained in an aquarium as small as 10 US gallons (38 l)if no other fish are kept with it. The tops of the tanks have to be tightly closed because of their jumping habits. They also prefer a tank with live plants, especially ones that float near the surface, providing hiding places to reduce stress. In aquaria, Freshwater Butterflyfish can grow to 4 inches. Freshwater Butterflyfish should not be kept with fin-eating or aggressive fishes. They are aggressive towards other top-dwelling fishes and will eat any fish small enough to fit in their mouths, so they should be maintained with bottom-dwelling fish or top- and mid- dwelling fish too large in size to be bothered by it. They generally will not eat prepared food, and do best on a diet of live or possibly canned crickets and other insects, as well as live, gut-loaded feeder fish (Goldfish should be avoided). They prefer still water, so filtration should not be too powerful.

小型淡水鱼类。通常体长80-120毫米,体重30-50克。体长形,粗壮,稍侧扁。头较大,无下鳃盖骨。眼中等大。口大,口内具齿。鳃孔大,鳃盖条8。体被圆鳞。侧线完全。鳔和迷路之间不连。椎骨30。背鳍位于体的后部。臀鳍比背鳍大、始于背鳍的前下方,后部与背鳍相对。胸鳍很发达,成翼状。腹鳍位于胸鳍的下方,前部鳍条粗壮和延长。尾鳍中部鳍条扩大。体淡黄绿色,鳍具有黄褐色斑点,鳞具有闪烁光泽。
生活在热带江河湖泊中。胸鳍、腹鳍和尾鳍很发达,当遇到捕食的昆虫,能跳出水面,作短距离滑翔追捕。雄鱼的臀鳍粗大,为适应交配月。
体色美丽,形态奇特,多月作观赏鱼类。
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