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Myxocyprinus asiaticus


Myxocyprinus asiaticus
Chinese Sailfin Sucker
胭脂鱼
The Chinese high fin banded shark, Myxocyprinus asiaticus, is a popular freshwater community-aquarium fish that belongs to the Catostomidae family. They grow to over three feet long and may be unsuitable for most home aquariums. A large pond, over 1,000 gallons, would be a more suitable home. Its popularity in the aquarium trade placed it as an endangered species in China. Young Chinese high fin banded sharks normally possess brown bodies bearing three dark-colored slanting bands. Adult males are distinguished from adult females by their red coloration. Adult females are of dark purple color with a broad and vertical reddish area along the body. The Chinese high fin banded sharks are also characterized by high and triangular dorsal finnage that extends up to the rear of the anal fin. The thick and fleshy lips bear small papillae without barbels. They have a single row of pharyngeal teeth that have comb-like arrangements.
Through adulthood, Chinese high fin banded sharks become darker in appearance. In old age, they lose their characteristic white bands.
Chinese high fin banded sharks are native to the Yangtze River basins of China in Asia
Chinese high fin banded sharks are middle and bottom-tank dwellers. They have a peaceful temperament and are described as exhibiting playful and clown-like swimming manner. They are known to change color depending on their mood. They are compatible with rasboras, danios and Siamese algae eaters. They should not be mixed with barbs and loaches
In its natural habitat, Chinese high fin banded sharks are known to reach up to three feet long. However, they are slow-growers and may live up to 100 years while in captivity.
胭脂鱼体侧扁,背部在背鳍起点处特别隆起。吻钝圆。口小,下位,呈马蹄形。唇厚,富肉质,上唇与吻皮形成一深沟;下唇向外翻出形成一肉褶,上下唇具有许多细小的乳突。无须。下咽骨呈镰刀状,下咽齿单行,数目很多,排列呈梳妆,末端呈钩状。背鳍无硬刺,基部很长,延伸至臀鳍基部后上方。臀鳍短,尾柄细长,尾鳍叉形。鳞大,侧线完全。在不同生长阶段,体形变化较大。仔鱼期当体长为1.6-2.2厘米时,体形特别细长,体长为体高的4.7倍;稍长大,在幼鱼期体高增大,体长12-28厘米时,体长为体高的2.5倍;成鱼期体长为58.4-98.0厘米时,体长约为体高的3.4倍,此时期体高增长反而减慢。其体色也随个体大小而变化。仔鱼阶段体长2.7-8.2厘米,呈深褐色,体侧各有3条黑色横条纹,背鳍、臀鳍上叶灰白色,下叶下缘灰黑色。成熟个体体侧为淡红、黄褐或暗褐色,从吻端至尾基有一条胭脂红色的宽纵带,背鳍、尾鳍均呈淡红色。胭脂鱼从仔鱼到成鱼的发育过程,其外部形态及体色的这些变化,过去文献记载相当混乱。一些学者根据大小不同的标本或另立新种,或记述新亚种,均欠稳妥。实际上我国的胭脂鱼只有一种,其它的种和亚种名称,均系此种的同物异名。
胭脂鱼的幼、成鱼不仅形态不同,生态习性也不相同。通常需求的生境,鱼苗和幼鱼阶段常喜群集于水流较缓的砾石之间生活,多在水体上层活动,游动缓慢,半长成的鱼则习惯于栖息在湖泊和江的中下游,水体中下层,活动迟缓,成鱼多生活于江河上游,水体的中下层,行动矫健。每年2月中旬(雨水节前后),性腺接近成熟的亲鱼均要上溯到上游,于3-5月在急流中繁殖。长江的产卵场在金沙江、岷江、嘉陵江等地。亲鱼产卵后仍在产卵场附近逗留,直到秋后退水时期,才回归到干流深水处越冬。胭脂鱼一般6龄可达性成熟,体重约10公斤左右。胭脂鱼主要以底栖无脊椎动物和水底泥渣中的有机物质为食,亦吃一些高等植物碎片和藻类。
亚口鱼科大多数属种分布于北美洲,现存约14属,近80种。本种是迄今所知的亚口鱼科分布于我国唯一的种。在长江上、中、下游皆有,但以上游数量为多;福建闽江亦产,目前亦属少见。
胭脂鱼生长较快,1龄鱼体长可达200毫米左右,成熟个体一般体重可达15-20公斤,最大个体重可达30公斤,在长江上游是一种重要经济鱼类。目前野生状态个体的数量正逐年趋于下降。葛洲坝截流后,长江中下游亲鱼不能上溯至上游的沱江、岷江等大支流中产卵,宜昌江段的某些产卵场的环境也遭到破坏。虽然坝下江段仍发现有繁殖群体,但因捕捞过度,目前自然存在的野生群体数量下降趋势仍在继续
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