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Atractosteus spatula


Atractosteus spatula
Alligator Garfish
鳄鱼雀鳝
The Alligator Gar ("Gator Gar"), Atractosteus spatula, is a primitive ray-finned fish. Unlike other Gars, the mature Alligator Gar possesses a dual row of large teeth in the upper jaw. Its name derives from the alligator-like appearance of these teeth along with the fish's elongated snout. The dorsal surface of the Alligator Gar is a brown or olive-color, while the ventral surface tends to be lighter. Their scales are diamond-shaped and interlocking (ganoid) and are sometimes used by Native Americans for jewelry and arrow heads.
The current world record for the largest Alligator Gar caught on rod and reel is 279 lb (127 kg). The largest taken by bowfishing is 365 lb (166 kg). The fish is also known for its ability to survive outside the water, being able to last for up to two hours above the surface.
Alligator Gar are found in the Lower Mississippi River Valley and Gulf Coast states of the Southeastern United States and Mexico as far south as Veracruz, encompassing the following US states: Texas, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Arkansas, Missouri, Florida, and Georgia. They have also been known historically to come as far north as central Kansas, Nebraska, Kentucky, Ohio, Iowa, and west-central Illinois, where the most northerly verified catch was at Meredosia, Illinois in 1922 and an 8.5 ft (2.6 m) specimen, now preserved, was caught at nearby Beardstown. Specimens at locations further south in Illinois have been verified as recently as 1976, with the Illinois Academy of Sciences verifiying a total of 122 captures to that date. They inhabit sluggish pools and backwaters or large rivers, bayous, and lakes. They are found in brackish or saltwater, and are more adaptable to the latter than are other gars. In Louisiana it is common to see these large gar striking the surface in brackish marshes.

鳄雀鳝(Alligator Gar)是北美7种雀鳝鱼中最大的一种,能长到300多磅,它们主要分布在从墨西哥到美国弗罗里达州的墨西哥湾沿岸河流和河口水域,密苏里河和俄亥俄河下游,以至尼加拉瓜境内的两个湖泊。用轮竿钓上来的雀鳝的世界纪录是279磅,由比尔·弗尔瓦德于1951年在德克萨斯州钓获。雀鳝的长满利牙的大口以及它在吞饵前喜欢拖著游一段距离的习惯,使得它很难上钩,因此,许多渔人更喜欢用鱼叉来捕猎,不用“大浮钓”法来钓取。
鱼类学家:杰瑞米瓦德 在工作雀鳝在吞食前喜欢衔著钓饵在水面游,由于PVC细管和大浮漂能随之移动,没有拉力,因而不会引起雀鳝的警觉。雀鳝上钩後会跳出水面,然后是猛拽钓线或是在船边翻磙,我们带著棍子制服它们,但棍子也往往被弄断。德克萨斯州不少水库的雀鳝如此之多,以致像克鲁格这样的渔民将它们运到路易斯安那州的鱼市上去出售。由于这种鱼数量很大且对其他鱼类有害,德克萨斯州“公园和野生动物局”发放许可证,允许商业性捕鱼。雀鳝鱼肉味鲜美,但加工起来不容易,宰杀雀鳝需要一把砍刀,一把剪金属薄片用的平头剪和一把大号的鱼片刀,我们甚至开玩笑说要用链锯来剖开它。
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