Freshwater Fish‎ > ‎Molly‎ > ‎

Poecilia sphenops


Poecilia sphenops
Molly
魔丽
Albino Molly
白化魔丽
Albino Lyretail Molly
白化双剑魔丽
Black Molly
黑魔丽
Black Lyretail Molly
黑双剑魔丽
Golden Molly
金魔丽
Golden Lyretail Molly
金双剑魔丽
Green Molly
绿魔丽
Green Lyretail Molly
绿双剑魔丽
Silver Molly
银魔丽
Silver Lyretail Molly
银双剑魔丽
Marble Molly
黑斑魔丽
Marble Lyretail Molly
黑斑双剑魔丽
Silver Marble Molly
银黑斑魔丽
Silver Marble Lyretail Molly
银黑斑双剑魔丽
Orange Neon Molly
橙电光魔丽
Orange Neon Lyretail Molly
橙电光双剑魔丽
Blood Red Molly
血红魔丽
   

Poecilia sphenops is a species of fish, of the genus Poecilia, known under the common name molly; to distinguish it from its congeners, it is sometimes called short-finned molly or common molly. They inhabit fresh water streams and coastal brackish and marine waters of Mexico. The wild-type fish are a dull silvery color, often sprinkled black all over.
Contrary to popular belief, this species of fish is actually a freshwater species, spending little time in brackish water before swimming back to their freshwater biotope. However, fish of the same species have been found in coastal sea waters, brackish swamps and freshwater streams, living and breeding. Mollies appear to be a hardy and highly adaptable species (this has been diluted over years of interbreeding in tank-bred specimens).
This species is one of the ancestors of the black mollies, a number of melanistic breeds which are black all over. It is one of the most well-known aquarium fishes and nearly as easy to keep and prolific as guppies (for optimal health and breeding success, they demand fresh vegetable food like algae). There are several other popular breeds, like the golden molly, nicknamed "24 karat", or the balloon molly. Also, breeds with altered caudal fin structures such as lyretails exist. The wild form is in fact quite rarely kept, as it has a rather plain silvery coloration suffused with brown and green hues. If given good care with ample sunlight, high water temperatures and fresh vegetables, they will, however, prove charming fish who make up for their somewhat plain coloration with their lively behavior.
The common molly can produce fertile hybrids with many Poecilia species, most importantly the sailfin molly. In the case of black hybrids, they are called midnight mollies, which are very popular due to their impressive dorsal fins, but require a bit more attention and have a somewhat decreased lifespan - though certainly not as much as the deformed breeds.
The male black mollies generally tend to be mildly aggressive. Although they are compatible tankmates with fish such as tiger barbs, they will chase them.

它们是常见热带鱼中唯一全身墨黑色的种类,连眼睛也不例外,因此非常容易识别。身体长纺锤形,头小,吻尖,尾柄侧扁,从侧面看几乎同腹背部一样宽。背鳍位于身体背部中央,比较有特色的是背鳍的鳍条长度大致相等,所以背鳍呈现长方形。雄鱼较雌鱼小而纤细,臀鳍依然是起交接器作用的棒形。
魔丽鱼其实是由橙色为主的墨西哥玛丽鱼通过品系繁育产生的黑色变种,所以在个别的黑玛丽中能见到身体泛出浅斑的返祖现象,不能错以为是稀罕的品种。 
时常听有些养鱼的朋友讲起这种鱼如何不容易养好。这种说法并非毫无根据。它们是最容易发生意外的鱼种,特别喜欢跳跃,在打开顶盖换水的短时间内也会跳出水箱,因为颜色在阴暗处不明显,不能被及时捡回水族箱而殒命的情况并不少见。与胎鳉科其它种类相比,玛丽鱼类的繁育不算太容易。其实觉得它们难养的原因是我们习惯上把它们当作同剑尾或孔雀生理需求完全相同的鱼来对待,致使它们的生理需要不能得到满足造成的。 
跟胎鳉科家族的其它成员相比,魔丽鱼类有2点较特别:一是喜欢硬水,在大多数热带鱼喜欢的微酸软水中虽然能成活,但会不安地躁动,一旦换成硬水,跳跃次数明显减少;二是它们比别的胎鳉鱼更爱吃素,一定程度上说明它们比较胆小,不适合与别的快游鱼混养。饲养管理时要勤换水,在水中加入少量的食盐可以使它们的体质更强健。不少人都注意到魔丽鱼喜欢啄食藻类,于是在它们生活的水族箱中密植水草,想法固然可取,但常常忘记大多数水草在魔丽鱼喜欢的微咸硬水中生长不良,而且种草的水族箱换水次数都比较少,致使水中酸度增加,水质变软,于是种草和养鱼成了难以调和的矛盾:草养好了鱼却不喜欢,鱼养好了草又长不好。如果要养好魔丽鱼,水族箱可以铺底砂并加强光照,勤换水,略加盐。如果要种草,也要挑选耐弱碱性硬水的品种;如果要混养,建议试着跟小型的东非慈鲷类混养。饲料可喂商品颗粒料和烫过的菜叶,少喂活饵。水藻较多时依然要补充少量其它饲料。 
Comments