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Poecilia latipinna


Poecilia latipinna
Sailfin Molly
长鳍魔丽
Golden Sailfin Molly
金长鳍魔丽
Golden Lyretail Sailfin Molly
金双剑长鳍魔丽
Green Sailfin Molly
绿长鳍魔丽
Green Lyretail Sailfin Molly
绿双剑长鳍魔丽
Silver Sailfin Molly
银长鳍魔丽
Silver Lyretail Sailfin Molly
银双剑长鳍魔丽
Marble Sailfin Molly
黑斑长鳍魔丽
Marble Lyretail Sailfin Molly
黑斑双剑长鳍魔丽
Blood Red Sailfin Molly
血红长鳍魔丽

Silver Marble Sailfin Molly
银黑斑长鳍魔丽

Silver Marble Lyretail Sailfin Molly
银黑斑双剑长鳍魔丽

Orange Neon Sailfin Molly
橙电光长鳍魔丽

Black Sailfin Molly
黑长鳍魔丽
  

The sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna, is a species of fish, of the genus Poecilia. They inhabit fresh, brackish, and coastal waters from North Carolina to Texas and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico.The sailfin molly is found in fresh, brackish, and coastal saltwater in coastal lowland habitats from North Carolina to Texas and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Preferring marshes, lowland streams, swamps, and estuaries, the sailfin molly is very common in peninsular Florida. Non-indigenous populations are established in New Zealand, in the western U.S. and in Hawaii. Sailfin mollies introduced to California have caused a decline in populations of the federally protected and endangered Desert Pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) Sailfin mollies are most commonly observed as the shallow surface waters along the edges of marshes, lowland streams, ponds, swamps, estuaries and even ephemeral water bodies such as roadside ditches. Small to large aggregations of the species are most commonly found under floating vegetation or near structures in the water, minimizing their chances of being observed by potential predators.
The sailfin molly is a tolerant species, as it can exploit the thin film of oxygen-rich surface water with its upturned mouth, so is able to survive oxygen-depleted habitats. A euryhaline species, the sailfin molly may be found in a variety of saline environments, tolerating salinities as high as 87 ppt and breeding in brackish waters.
Adults thrive best in isolated pools or organically enriched waterways where few other fish occur.

它们是常见热带鱼中唯一全身墨黑色的种类,连眼睛也不例外,因此非常容易识别。身体长纺锤形,头小,吻尖,尾柄侧扁,从侧面看几乎同腹背部一样宽。背鳍位于身体背部中央,比较有特色的是背鳍的鳍条长度大致相等,所以背鳍呈现长方形。雄鱼较雌鱼小而纤细,臀鳍依然是起交接器作用的棒形。
魔丽鱼其实是由橙色为主的墨西哥玛丽鱼通过品系繁育产生的黑色变种,所以在个别的黑玛丽中能见到身体泛出浅斑的返祖现象,不能错以为是稀罕的品种。 
时常听有些养鱼的朋友讲起这种鱼如何不容易养好。这种说法并非毫无根据。它们是最容易发生意外的鱼种,特别喜欢跳跃,在打开顶盖换水的短时间内也会跳出水箱,因为颜色在阴暗处不明显,不能被及时捡回水族箱而殒命的情况并不少见。与胎鳉科其它种类相比,玛丽鱼类的繁育不算太容易。其实觉得它们难养的原因是我们习惯上把它们当作同剑尾或孔雀生理需求完全相同的鱼来对待,致使它们的生理需要不能得到满足造成的。 
跟胎鳉科家族的其它成员相比,魔丽鱼类有2点较特别:一是喜欢硬水,在大多数热带鱼喜欢的微酸软水中虽然能成活,但会不安地躁动,一旦换成硬水,跳跃次数明显减少;二是它们比别的胎鳉鱼更爱吃素,一定程度上说明它们比较胆小,不适合与别的快游鱼混养。饲养管理时要勤换水,在水中加入少量的食盐可以使它们的体质更强健。不少人都注意到魔丽鱼喜欢啄食藻类,于是在它们生活的水族箱中密植水草,想法固然可取,但常常忘记大多数水草在魔丽鱼喜欢的微咸硬水中生长不良,而且种草的水族箱换水次数都比较少,致使水中酸度增加,水质变软,于是种草和养鱼成了难以调和的矛盾:草养好了鱼却不喜欢,鱼养好了草又长不好。如果要养好魔丽鱼,水族箱可以铺底砂并加强光照,勤换水,略加盐。如果要种草,也要挑选耐弱碱性硬水的品种;如果要混养,建议试着跟小型的东非慈鲷类混养。饲料可喂商品颗粒料和烫过的菜叶,少喂活饵。水藻较多时依然要补充少量其它饲料。 
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