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Poecilia reticulata

Poecilia reticulata
Red Tail Guppy
Blue Tail Guppy
Blue Variegated Guppy
Green Variegated Guppy
Black Tail Guppy
Golden Top Blue Var. Guppy
Golden Top Red Var. Guppy
Red Blonde Var. Guppy
Red Blonde Cobra Guppy
Red Cobra Guppy
Blue Cobra Guppy
Green Cobra Guppy
Golden Cobra Guppy
Fine Spotted Green Cobra Guppy
Red Neon Guppy
Blue Neon Guppy
Red Tuxedo Guppy
Red Blonde Tuxedo Guppy
Yellow Tuxedo Guppy
Red Blonde Guppy
Leopard Guppy
Blue Diamond Guppy
Red Diamond Guppy
Fine Spotted Glass Tail Guppy
Fine Spotted Red Var. Guppy
Red Double Sword Guppy
Green Double Sword Guppy
Dragon Head Guppy
Phoenix Guppy
Blue Phoenix Guppy
Sunset Guppy
Metallic Rainbow Guppy
Metallic Red Guppy
Platinum Flora Guppy

The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as the millionfish, is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. It is a small member of the Poeciliidae family [females 4–6 centimetres long, males 2.5–3.5 centimetres long and like all other members of the family, is live-bearing.
Robert John Lechmere Guppy discovered this tiny fish in Trinidad in 1866, and the fish was named Girardinus guppii in his honour by Albert Günther later that year. However, the fish had previously been described in America. Although Girardinus guppii is now considered a junior synonym of Poecilia reticulata, the common name "guppy" still remains.
Over time, guppies have been given a variety of taxonomic names, although Poecilia reticulata is the name currently considered to be valid.
Guppies are native to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Brazil, Guyana, Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Venezuela.
However, guppies have been introduced to many different countries on all continents, except Antarctica. Sometimes this has occurred accidentally, but most often as a means of mosquito control, the hope being that the guppies would eat the mosquito larvae, slowing the spread of malaria. In many cases, these guppies have had a negative impact on native fish faunas
Guppies exhibit sexual dimorphism. While wild-type females are grey in body colour, males have splashes, spots, or stripes that can be any of a wide variety of colors.
Guppies are highly prolific livebearers.The gestation period of a guppy is 21–30 days, with an average of 28 days, varying according to water temperature. Males possess a modified tubular anal fin, the gonopodium, located directly behind the ventral fin, which is flexed forward and used as a delivery mechanism for one or more balls of spermatozoa. The male will approach a female and will flex his gonopodium forward before thrusting it into her and ejecting these balls. After the female guppy is inseminated, a dark area near the anus, known as the gravid spot, will enlarge and darken. Just before birth, the eyes of fry may be seen through the translucent skin in this area of the female's body. When birth occurs, individual offspring are dropped in sequence over the course of an hour or so.
Guppies prefer water temperatures of about 26 °C for reproduction. The female guppy has drops of between two and 50 fry at a time, typically ranging between 5 and 30. After giving birth, the female is ready for conception again within only a few hours. Guppies have the ability to store sperm up to a year, so the females can give birth many times without depending on the presence of a male. From the moment of birth, each fry is fully capable of swimming, eating, and avoiding danger. If not kept separate, the older, mature guppies will eat the fry, so the use of a breeder box, net breeder, or a separate 20–40 litres tank is recommended. Live plants may be used as hiding places for the fry.
Young fry take roughly three or four months to reach maturity. In the aquarium, they are usually fed finely ground flake foods, baby brine shrimp or, unless they are put in a separate tank, uneaten food from the adults. In addition, they nibble on algae.
Guppies have been selectively bred to produce a variety of colors and patterns. In the wild, male guppies are dull black or brown in colour, with some coloured spots, while females are fully dull grey. The wild guppies that showed the most colours in each generation were bred to produce the "fancy guppies" seen in pet stores and guppy shows today.
The guppy has been successfully hybridised with various species of molly (Poecilia latipinna or velifera), e.g. male guppy and female molly. However, the hybrids are always males and appear to be infertile. The guppy has also been hybridised with the Endler's livebearer (Poecilia wingei) to produce fertile offspring.
Guppies have 23 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of sex chromosomes.Selective breeding has produced many different strains, such as the snakeskin and grass varieties. A strain is defined as a population of guppies that show the same characteristics.

The guppy prefers a hard water aquarium with a temperature between 25.5 and 27.8 °C  and salt levels equivalent to one tablespoon per 5 US gallons (19 l; 4.2 imp gal).They can withstand levels of salinity up to 150% that of normal seawater, which has led to them being occasionally included in marine tropical community tanks, as well as in freshwater tropical tanks. Guppies are generally peaceful, though nipping behaviour is sometimes exhibited between male guppies or towards other top swimmers like platys and swordtails, and occasionally other fish with prominent fins, such as angelfish. Its most famous characteristic is its propensity for breeding, and it can breed in both fresh water and marine aquariums.
Guppies bred by aquarists produced variations in appearance ranging from colour consistency to various tail forms.
Well-fed adults do not often eat their own young, although sometimes safe zones are required for the fry. Specially designed livebearer birthing tanks, which can be suspended inside the aquarium, are available from aquatic retailers. These also serve to shield the pregnant female from further attention from the males, which is important, because the males will sometimes attack the females while they are giving birth. It also provides a separate area for the newborn young as protection from being eaten by their mother. However, if a female is put in the breeder box too early, it may cause her to have a miscarriage. Well-planted tanks that offer a lot of barriers to adult guppies will shelter the young quite well. Java moss, duckweed (Lemna minor and other Lemna species), and water wisteria are all excellent choices. A continuous supply of live food, such as Daphnia, will keep adult fish full and may spare the fry when they are born.

别名彩虹鱼、百万鱼、库比鱼。孔雀鱼体形修长,有极为美丽的尾鳍。成体雄鱼体长3厘米左右,体色艳基色有淡红、淡绿、淡黄、红、紫、孔雀蓝等,尾部长占体长的2/3左右,尾鳍上有1—3行排列整齐的黑色圆斑或是一彩色大圆斑。尾鳍形状有圆尾、旗尾、三角尾、火炬尾、琴尾、齿尾、燕尾、裙尾、上剑尾、下剑尾等。成体雌鱼体长可达5—6 厘米,尾部长占体长的1/2以上,体色较雄鱼单调,尾鳍呈鲜艳的蓝、黄、淡绿、淡蓝色,散布着大小不等的黑色斑点,这种鱼的尾鳍很有特色,游动时似小扇扇动。
孔雀鱼属卵胎生鱼类。繁殖力强,性成熟早,幼鱼经3-4个月饲养便进入成熟期可以繁殖后代,性成熟迟早与水温高低、饲养条件密切相关。 孔雀鱼繁殖时要选择一个较大的水族缸,水温保持在26摄氏度。pH5.5-8.0,同时要多种一些水草,然后按1雄配3雌的比例放入种鱼。待鱼发情后,雌鱼腹部逐渐膨大,出现黑色胎斑;雄鱼此时不断追逐雌鱼,雄鱼的交接器插入雌鱼的泄殖孔时排出精子,进行体内受精。当雌鱼胎斑变得大而黑、肛门突出时,可捞入另一水族箱内待产。
孔雀鱼在1859年,德国鱼类学者Wilhelm C.H. Peters在委内瑞拉首都卡拉卡斯的Rio Guaire地方发现孔雀鱼,因此他成了最早开始描述这种小型淡水鱼的科学家,由于孔雀鱼看来和Poecilia (鱼名)family的鱼类很相像,所以Wilhelm C.H. Peters就命名孔雀鱼为Poecilia reticulata。Reticulata这个字意指孔雀鱼身上部分重叠的鳞片形成蕾丝般的图样。1861年时,西班牙的Senior Filippi得到一些来自巴巴多斯(Barbados)的孔雀鱼标本,由于他没看到Peter曾经做过的描述,而误认为自己发现新的「属」。Senior Filippi发现到孔雀鱼看起来和Poecilia十分相似,于是将它称作Lebistes poeciloides (Frazer-Brunner, 1953),而『孔雀鱼』这名称则是一直等到英国的植物学家Robert John Lechmere Guppy从特立尼达(Trinidad)带回一些标本回去鉴定以后,经大英博物馆的Dr. Albert Gunther(人名)鉴定此标本为新的物种,为表彰Robert Guppy,所称它作Girardinus guppyi,『孔雀鱼』这名称从此才被确立。孔雀鱼的原产地是在委内瑞拉(Venezuela)、圭亚那(Guyana)、南美洲的北部海岸地带和一些加勒比海(Caribbean Sea)上的岛屿。由于『孔雀鱼』拥有多种的色彩花样,所以也被大家称为彩虹鱼。孔雀鱼会用它朝上翘的嘴吃掉靠近水面的蚊子幼虫,所以野生的孔雀鱼曾在1930年代,被引进新加坡,来控制红树林沼泽地的蚊子数量(Herre, 1940)。【以上文章节录自「台湾优质孔雀鱼协会」网站】