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Koi


Cyprinus carpio
Koi
鲤鱼
Red Koi
红鲤
Red & White Koi
红白鲤
Tri-Colour Koi
三色鲤
Black Koi
黑鲤
Platinum Koi
银鲤
Yellow Koi
黄鲤
Yellow & White Koi
黄白鲤
Peacock Koi
孔雀鲤
Tiger Koi
老虎鲤
Butterfly Koi
蝴蝶鲤
  

Koi or more specifically nishikigoi are ornamental varieties of domesticated common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that are kept for decorative purposes in outdoor koi ponds or water gardens.
Koi varieties are distinguished by coloration, patterning, and scalation. Some of the major colors are white, black, red, yellow, blue, and cream. The most popular category of koi is the Gosanke, which is made up of the Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku, and Showa Sanshoku varieties.Cyprinus carpio or the common carp is a species of fish from the family Cyprinidae. The origins of the common carp trace to the Caspian Sea, where the fish naturally migrated to the Black and Aral Seas, east to eastern mainland Asia and west as far as the Danube River. Within the same family, the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) were first bred for color mutations in China more than a thousand years ago, where selective breeding led to the development of the goldfish. This is the first known instance of selective breeding to produce ornamental fish. 
Various carp species were originally domesticated in East Asia, where they were used as food fish. The ability of carp to survive and adapt to many climates and water conditions allowed the domesticated species to be propagated to many new locations including Japan. Natural color mutations of these carp would have occurred across all populations.
The common carp was aquacultured as a food fish as at least as far back as the 5th century in China. The common carp was also known to have been aquacultured in Europe by the Roman Empire, which could have spanned a time period of 27 BC to 400 AD. Common carp were first bred for color in Japan in the 1820s, initially in the town of Ojiya in the Niigata prefecture on the north eastern coast of Honshu island. By the 20th century, a number of color patterns had been established, most notably the red-and-white Kohaku. The outside world was not aware of the development of color variations in koi until 1914, when the Niigata koi were exhibited in the annual exposition in Tokyo. At that point, interest in koi exploded throughout Japan. The hobby of keeping koi eventually spread worldwide. Koi are now commonly sold in most pet stores, with higher-quality fish available from specialist dealers.
Extensive hybridization between different populations has muddled the historical zoogeography of the common carp. However, scientific consensus is that there are at least two subspecies of the common carp, one from Western Eurasia (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and another from East Asia (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus). One recent study on the mitochondrial DNA of various common carp indicate that koi are of the East Asian subspecies. However another recent study on the mitochondrial DNA of koi have found that koi are descended from multiple lineages of common carp from both Western Eurasian and East Asian varieties. This could be the result of koi being bred from a mix of East Asian and Western Eurasian carp varieties, or koi being bred exclusively from East Asian varieties and being subsequently hybridized with Western Eurasian varieties (the butterfly koi is one known product of such a cross). 

The word koi comes from Japanese, simply meaning "carp". It includes both the dull grey fish and the brightly colored varieties. What are known as koi in English are referred to more specifically as nishikigoi in Japan (literally meaning "brocaded carp"). In Japanese, "koi" is a homophone for another word that means "affection" or "love"; koi are therefore symbols of love and friendship in Japan. An example of this can be seen in the short story by Mukōda Kuniko, "Koi-san". Koi tattoos have also become a popular trend throughout the world.

Goldfish were developed in China more than a thousand years ago by selectively breeding Prussian carp for color mutations. By the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279), yellow, orange, white and red-and-white colorations had been developed. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) are now considered different species. Goldfish were introduced to Japan in the 16th century and to Europe in the 17th century. Koi, on the other hand, were developed from common carp in Japan in the 1820s. Koi are domesticated common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that are culled for color, they are not a different species and will revert to the original coloration within a few generations if allowed to breed freely.
In general, goldfish tend to be smaller than koi, and have a greater variety of body shapes, and fin and tail configurations. Koi varieties tend to have a common body shape, but have a greater variety of coloration and color patterns. They also have prominent barbels on the lip. Some goldfish varieties, such as the common goldfish, comet goldfish and shubunkin have body shapes and coloration that are similar to koi, and can be difficult to tell apart from koi when immature. Since goldfish and koi were developed from different species of carp, even though they can interbreed, their offspring are sterile.The common carp is a hardy fish, and koi retain that durability. Koi are cold-water fish, but benefit from being kept in the 15-25 degrees C  range and do not react well to long cold winter temperatures; their immune system 'turns off' below 10 degrees Celsius. Koi ponds usually have a meter or more of depth in areas of the world that become warm during the summer, whereas in areas that have harsher winters, ponds generally have a minimum of 1.5 meters. Specific pond construction has evolved by koi keepers intent on raising show quality koi.
Koi's bright colors put them at a severe disadvantage against predators; a white-skinned Kohaku is a visual dinner bell against the dark green of a pond. Herons, kingfishers, otters, raccoons, cats, foxes, badgers and hedgehogs are all capable of emptying a pond of its fish. A well-designed outdoor pond will have areas too deep for herons to stand in, overhangs high enough above the water that mammals can't reach in, and shade trees overhead to block the view of aerial passers-by. It may prove necessary to string nets or wires above the surface. A pond usually includes a pump and filtration system to keep the water clear.
Koi are an omnivorous fish and will often eat a wide variety of foods, including peas, lettuce, and watermelon. Koi food is designed not only to be nutritionally balanced, but also to float so as to encourage them to come to the surface. When they are eating, it is possible to check koi for parasites and ulcers. Koi will recognize the person feeding them and gather around them at feeding times. They can be trained to take food from one's hand. In the winter, their digestive system slows nearly to a halt, and they eat very little, perhaps no more than nibbles of algae from the bottom. Care should be taken by hobbyists that proper oxygenation and off-gassing occurs over the winter months in small water ponds so they do not perish. Their appetite will not come back until the water becomes warm in the spring. When the temperature drops below 10 °C, feeding, particularly with protein, is halted or the food can go rancid in their stomach, causing sickness.
One famous scarlet koi, named "Hanako" (c. 1751 – July 7, 1977) was owned by several individuals, the last of whom was Dr. Komei Koshihara. Hanako was reportedly 226 years old upon her death. Her age was determined by removing one of her scales and examining it extensively in 1966.

Like most fish, koi reproduce through spawning in which a female lays a vast number of eggs and one or more males fertilize them. Nurturing the resulting offspring is a tricky and tedious job, usually done only by professionals. Although a koi breeder may carefully select the parents they wish based on their desired characteristics, the resulting fry will nonetheless exhibit a wide range of color and quality.
Koi will produce thousands of offspring from a single spawning. However, unlike cattle, purebred dogs, or more relevantly, goldfish, the large majority of these offspring, even from the best champion-grade koi, will not be acceptable as nishikigoi (they have no interesting colors) or may even be genetically defective. These unacceptable offspring are culled at various stages of development based on the breeder's expert eye and closely guarded trade techniques. Culled fry are usually destroyed or used as feeder fish, while older culls, within their first year between 3" to 6" long (also called "Tosai"), are often sold as lower-grade 'pond-quality' koi.
The semi-randomized result of the koi's reproductive process has both advantages and disadvantages for the breeder. While it requires diligent oversight to narrow down the favorable result that the breeder wants, it also makes possible the development of new varieties of koi within relatively few generations.

日本锦鲤是一种名贵的大型观赏鱼,在日本被誉为“活的艺术品”、“水中活宝石”和“观赏鱼之王”。日本锦鲤的寿命通常为60~70年,体长可达1~1.3米。这些锦鲤的美妙之处就在于,随着年龄和环境水温的变化,它们身上的花纹色泽和形态也会不断变化,就像你亲手画出的特殊的水墨画一样。上品锦鲤都是千里挑一,要看血统、骨架、色泽、花纹、泳姿等。颜色太杂的就淘汰掉,这跟选美差不多,这样才能养出名贵锦鲤。日本锦鲤是一种名贵的大型观赏鱼,在日本被誉为“水中活宝石”“观赏鱼之王”。该种鱼是人工将鲤鱼 日本锦鲤通过选择、杂交,培育成的观赏鱼类,这些锦鲤随着年龄和环境水温的变化,它们身上的花纹色泽和形态也会不断变化,见过的人都喜欢这种鱼。日本锦鲤牙齿数目很少,成一至三排横列在下咽骨,其嘴巴周围只有一对靠近下颚的骨头,而且均无脂鳍,具有两对胡须。大致来说,锦鲤是属于温带性鱼类,适宜的温度约为10~25℃。它对环境的适应力强,但对水温的剧烈变化则显得脆弱,尤其是温差猛烈变化4℃以上时,在体表面就会出现白膜,就是感冒症状,请多小心。锦鲤是杂食性鱼类,植物碎片、红虫、蚯蚓、面包虫、蚕蛹、米饭、面包、水果均可作为食物。一般以植物性饲料占六成、动物性饵料占四成的比例最为恰当。
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