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Coenobita perlatus


Coenobita perlatus
Strawberry Hermit Crab
草莓寄居蟹
Coenobita perlatus, is a species of terrestrial hermit crab. It is known as the strawberry hermit crab because of its reddish orange colours. It is a widespread scavenger across the Indo-Pacific, and is also traded to hobby aquarists.
Adults may grow to an average length of 80 mm (3.1 in) and a mass of 80 g (2.8 oz), and inhabit discarded gastropod shells. They are coloured red or orange; this has led to the species' common name of strawberry hermit crab
C. perlatus lives in a wide swathe of the Indo-Pacific, from Mauritius, Seychelles and Aldabra in the west to Samoa in the east. In Australia, the species is limited to Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands, the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea Islands Territory.
C. perlatus keeps a supply of water in the shell it inhabits. It returns to the sea at night to refresh its water, and it performs osmoregulation by taking appropriate quantities of sea water and fresh water. In the heat of the day, it can bury itself in damp sand as a means of thermoregulation and to prevent water loss. It can also withdraw into its shell and close the aperture with its claws.
C. perlatus is an efficient scavenger, to the extent that the low numbers of carrion-breeding flies on many islands have been attributed to the presence of C. perlatus. It has also been observed to use its claws to pinch the live flesh from the invasive land snail Achatina fulica.
Eggs are brooded inside the shell that the female inhabits, but are released into the sea

繁殖方式 卵生。由于寄居蟹独特的繁殖模式,使得寄居蟹在人工环境中不太可能进行繁殖。雌雄寄居蟹最大的分别是雄性生殖孔开口于第5对胸足的腰节,而雌性生殖孔则位在第4对胸足。交配时雄性会将精囊存于雌性身上,雌性在产卵时会顺便让卵受精。每次产卵约1-5万颗卵。雌性会用泳肢将受精卵抱在腹部孵育一段时间。当卵发育到一定程度之后雌性会将卵带到岸边排放,让卵随波浪进入海中孵化为浮游生物,在海中经过多次脱皮后进化为幼蟹才会上岸,找到贝壳栖身之后就在陆地上定居生活。
  习 性 虽然陆寄居蟹可以在陆地上生活,但是它们与大海的脐带并未切断,因为它们的生命周期中有一部份还是必须在海中完成,也就是由产卵到孵化再到幼体的阶段。所以终其一生,草莓寄居蟹都不会也无法远离海岸生活。在饲养时也就必须同时提供淡水和海水让它们饮用。 草莓寄居蟹除了和一般蟹类一样需要脱皮之外,还需要换壳。寄居蟹脱皮时通常会挖掘底沙把自己埋住,这时底沙需保持湿润,脱完皮的寄居需要十天左右才会变硬。受伤断落的肢体通常都会在脱皮之后再生。至于换壳,这就是饲养寄居蟹的一个独特的乐趣,寄居蟹在成长过程中必须不断的变换更大的壳。所以应该准备几个大小不同的壳供它们更换使用。贩卖寄居蟹的店家也会贩售各种珍奇的贝壳。这些贝壳通常经过抛光处理,非常耀眼。许多饲主也常自行发挥想象力来彩绘贝壳,让自己的寄居蟹拥有独一无二的个性化贝壳。
  体形特征 全长5-10公分。它们算是寄居蟹当中最美丽也最容易分辨的种类,因为它们通体鲜红,并且散布着白色斑点,几乎就是草莓的化身,所以国外称之为草莓寄居蟹。而台湾的寄居蟹博士施习德则称之为珍珠寄居蟹。
  食 性 它们属于食腐动物,也就是说几乎任何能吃的东西它们都能接受。任何饲料,蔬果,米饭,死鱼虾它们都来者不拒。不过草莓寄居蟹与一般寄居蟹比较不同的是它们需要经常补充胡萝卜素来维持鲜艳的体色。否则红色会逐渐消退。胡萝卜素最好的来源就是虾类或是红色热带鱼类专用的增艳饲料。另外,它们也有群居的习性,因此单独饲养的个体会不如多只饲养来得适应。
  护 理 人工环境以取得方便的珊瑚细沙或碎珊瑚最适合,用枯树皮搭出居所,再放上一浅盘淡水和一浅盘海水就完成基本布置。海水可以用海水鱼店都有卖的人工海水素自己调制。寄居蟹的肺部需要有适当的湿度才能完成呼吸作用,所以水份是绝对不能少的,特别是海水更是养好寄居蟹的关键。千万不要把陆寄居蟹养在水里,会淹死的。除此之外,草莓寄居蟹的日常照顾是很容易的。 一般草莓寄居蟹野生个体可以生存25-30年,但是在人工环境中通常只能存活2-4年,这应该是与脱离海洋有很大的关系。如果能够布置半陆半海的潮间带环境,应该会让它们活得更好更久。.
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