Mikrogeophagus altispinosus

Mikrogeophagus altispinosus
Bolivian Ramirezi
Mikrogeophagus altispinosus is a species of fish endemic to the Amazon river basin, in Brazil and Bolivia respectively. The species is part of the family Cichlidae and is included in subfamily Geophaginae. It is a popular aquarium fish, traded under the common names of Bolivian butterfly, Bolivian ram and Ruby crown cichlid. The species occurs in the soft, acidic warm waters of the Mamoré and Guaporé river drainages in Bolivia and Brazil. Whether one morph of M. altispinosus, known to aquarium hobbyists as Mikrogeophagus sp. "Zweifleck/Two-patch", found in the upper Rio Guaporé in Brazil is a different species remains unclear The type locality is the Rio Mamoré at San Joaquin (Beni Province, Bolivia). In its natural habitat the species occurs in permanent freshwater streams and pools.
The species is similar in profile to the larger geophagine cichlids. Maximum size is approximately 8 centimetres The head and front half of the body is yellow fading to olive-grey at the rear. There is a vertical black band through the eye and six faint transverse stripes along the body the third stripe is dark at its centre. The first few rays of the dorsal fin are black and both the dorsal and caudal fin are edged in pinky-red. The anal and pelvic fins are the same shade of red throughout with bright blue rays and dots.
The species displays only limited sexual dimorphism, mature males being slightly larger and in some cases showing longer extensions on both the caudal fin and the posterior of the dorsal fin. Although less popular than its close relative Mikrogeophagus ramirezi, the Bolivian ram remains a commonly encountered cichlid for the aquarium. The species is also more tolerant of lower temperatures (22–26 °C, 72–79 °F) and a greater range of water chemistries than M. ramirezi. For these reasons, M. altispinosus can be kept in some community aquariums, however, assertive, active or aggressively-feeding fish are not ideal companions for this relatively shy species.
An aquarium which mimics the natural environment of the species, i.e.: soft, acidic water with hiding places in the form of dense planted regions, or bogwood is recommended. Aquarists classify M. altispinosus as a dwarf cichlid and as such it can be kept in relatively small aquariums, with minimum volumes being approximately of 80 litres (20 gallons). In captivity the species is an unfussy feeder and readily accepts many commercially available fish foods.

玻利维亚凤凰:别名袖珍蝴蝶鲷(Dwarf Butterfly Cichlid),主要产于玻利维亚的多斯桑托斯到特立尼达和多巴哥北方的地区。最为引人注目的就应该是它们靓丽的红色尾巴了。它属于体形最大的短鲷品种。于1911年由哈斯曼首先记录为Crenicara altispinosa被归入无纹鲷属,到了1966年,任职于波恩亚历山大-科尼格博物馆的卢林博士在玻利维亚的托多思.山多思山区采集到的玻利维亚凤凰被曼肯博士误认为是Apistogramma ramirei并归入小型食土鲷属。直至1981年才由库德兰规定为彩蝶鲷属中。可谓命运多桀呀。