Mikrogeophagus altispinosus


Mikrogeophagus altispinosus
Bolivian Ramirezi
玻利维亚凤凰
Mikrogeophagus altispinosus is a species of fish endemic to the Amazon river basin, in Brazil and Bolivia respectively. The species is part of the family Cichlidae and is included in subfamily Geophaginae. It is a popular aquarium fish, traded under the common names of Bolivian butterfly, Bolivian ram and Ruby crown cichlid. The species occurs in the soft, acidic warm waters of the Mamoré and Guaporé river drainages in Bolivia and Brazil. Whether one morph of M. altispinosus, known to aquarium hobbyists as Mikrogeophagus sp. "Zweifleck/Two-patch", found in the upper Rio Guaporé in Brazil is a different species remains unclear The type locality is the Rio Mamoré at San Joaquin (Beni Province, Bolivia). In its natural habitat the species occurs in permanent freshwater streams and pools.
The species is similar in profile to the larger geophagine cichlids. Maximum size is approximately 8 centimetres The head and front half of the body is yellow fading to olive-grey at the rear. There is a vertical black band through the eye and six faint transverse stripes along the body the third stripe is dark at its centre. The first few rays of the dorsal fin are black and both the dorsal and caudal fin are edged in pinky-red. The anal and pelvic fins are the same shade of red throughout with bright blue rays and dots.
The species displays only limited sexual dimorphism, mature males being slightly larger and in some cases showing longer extensions on both the caudal fin and the posterior of the dorsal fin. Although less popular than its close relative Mikrogeophagus ramirezi, the Bolivian ram remains a commonly encountered cichlid for the aquarium. The species is also more tolerant of lower temperatures (22–26 °C, 72–79 °F) and a greater range of water chemistries than M. ramirezi. For these reasons, M. altispinosus can be kept in some community aquariums, however, assertive, active or aggressively-feeding fish are not ideal companions for this relatively shy species.
An aquarium which mimics the natural environment of the species, i.e.: soft, acidic water with hiding places in the form of dense planted regions, or bogwood is recommended. Aquarists classify M. altispinosus as a dwarf cichlid and as such it can be kept in relatively small aquariums, with minimum volumes being approximately of 80 litres (20 gallons). In captivity the species is an unfussy feeder and readily accepts many commercially available fish foods.

玻利维亚凤凰:别名袖珍蝴蝶鲷(Dwarf Butterfly Cichlid),主要产于玻利维亚的多斯桑托斯到特立尼达和多巴哥北方的地区。最为引人注目的就应该是它们靓丽的红色尾巴了。它属于体形最大的短鲷品种。于1911年由哈斯曼首先记录为Crenicara altispinosa被归入无纹鲷属,到了1966年,任职于波恩亚历山大-科尼格博物馆的卢林博士在玻利维亚的托多思.山多思山区采集到的玻利维亚凤凰被曼肯博士误认为是Apistogramma ramirei并归入小型食土鲷属。直至1981年才由库德兰规定为彩蝶鲷属中。可谓命运多桀呀。
  养殖玻利维亚凤凰应该说比较简单。它们性情温和并且比较能和平相处。但是为了繁殖起见还是不要大量混养的好。最好饲养于水草箱中,可以用小型水族箱饲养。而且基本上这个品种也不挑食能够适应人工饲料。饲养水质:硬度:5-10DH,PH值:6-7。
  繁殖玻利维亚凤凰也不算很难。玻利维亚凤凰大约在12个月大的时候就已经发育成熟,但是基本上长到16个月左右7厘米大的时候才会繁殖。野生的玻利维亚凤凰的繁殖水质大约是硬度5、PH值7.0左右、水温28摄氏度,但是据观察他们它们并不是必须这样的水质才可以繁殖,有过它们在中等硬度水质中繁殖成功的记录所以应该来说水质不会是大问题。只是水温最好要保持在28摄氏度。繁殖的时候亲鱼会在平坦的石块上用嘴啃出一块繁殖场出来。然后产下200-300颗卵,大约经过55小时就可以孵化出小鱼。这时候亲鱼会将稚鱼搬移到事先准备好的隐蔽所。这一期间亲鱼会有将稚鱼含到口中保护的习惯。并且会经常的搬运稚鱼。大约5天半左右稚鱼就可以进行平游并在长到进食。这时可以投喂洄水、丰年虾幼虫。此时的幼鱼主要由雌鱼带领。如果喂养得当幼鱼会在2个月左右长到3厘米长。喂养过程中最关键的是保持水质。。

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