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Altolamprologus calvus


Altolamprologus calvus
Pearly Lamprologus
喷点珍珠虎慈鲷
Altolamprologus calvus is a cichlid endemic to the southern shoreline of Lake Tanganyika in eastern Africa. The species has an extremely laterally compressed body and a high dorsal fin. Males may grow to 13 cm (5 inches), while females are normally smaller.
It is physically similar to its close relative A. compressiceps, though it is less deep-bodied and has a longer snout.
A. calvus is commonly kept as an aquarium fish in setups devoted to East African fish. Several local variants exist, and some may prove to be distinct species or subspecies. Examples include:
'Black Sambia'
'Black Pectoral'
'Black Zaire'
'Black Kapampa'
'Yellow'
'White'
'Red Fin'
There are several morphological varieties of Alto. calvus: black, white, yellow, and even zebra, which looks a lot like a white version of Alto. compressiceps. The black calvus is found at several different locations in Lake Tanganyika, although the populations from Zambia and Moliro have been more heavily exploited for the cichlid hobby. Alto. calvus is characterized by a laterally compressed body, a steep sloping forehead, stripes that are more apparent on the head and collar region, and brilliant white spots that decorate the posterior two-thirds of their flanks. Adult males can attain maximum lengths of six inches, while females max out at around four inches. Once mature, males are also higher-bodied and possess more elongated fins.
Alto. calvus is a predator, and specializes in snatching young cichlids and invertebrates from between rock crevices and rock piles. Their laterally compressed body not only helps them in avoiding detection, but permits them to go into narrow crevices, turning their bodies at odd angles if needed. Small fishes, such as juveniles and shell-dwellers, should not be kept in the same tank with this fish as the calvus may dine on them.
When hunting, Alto. calvus will cruise along the substrate looking for prey. Once a target has been identified, this fish will keep its eye locked on the prey, but raises its body upwards and then strikes. This hunting technique is similar to Dimidiochromis compressiceps, which is another laterally compressed predator.
In the aquarium, they can be given any type of live or frozen food (except beef heart or any other food containing mammalian products). Live food is always greedily consumed. Flake food is accepted, but is usually insufficient alone to bring a female into breeding condition.
Calvus make a great addition to most any Tanganyikan community setup, barring a setup with shell dwellers. They can also be kept with many of the fishes from Lakes Malawi and Victoria, provided the latter also require a high protein diet. Mbuna are not ideal tankmates for this reason.
They make a great addition to many setups because they tend to mind their own business, but can certainly hold their own. The thick scales of "Altolamps" give them an efficient protection against attacks by fry-guarding cichlids. I have read that when attacked, they will bend their bodies so as to expose their scales to an enemy, which will easily fray the lips of an enemy when bitten.
Calvus looks particularly menacing, but is rather mild. They are not territorial and not aggressive towards other cichlids of similar size. In fact, this male will often poke his head into part of the holey rock in my tank, pretending that no one can see him because he can't see them! When introducing an "Altolamp" to your aquarium, don't be alarmed if it hides for several weeks before it becomes comfortable with its surroundings. Just be patient and ensure good water quality. Don't overfeed in your anxiety that it eat; this will only degrade water conditions and cause other cichlids in the tank to become more susceptible to Bloat.


在天然环境中,珍珠虎的觅食技巧可说是独树一格,虽然平时他们看似懒洋洋,但捕食时的动作可是非常迅速,当他们锁定对象时会停止游动,以接近垂直姿势方式头朝下准备向猎物攻击
  以A. calvus、A. compressiceps来说大约会接近到10公分以内后攻击。有时他们也会循着岩石表面由上至下游移寻找幼鱼,甚至会耐心等口孵慈鲷释出卵而尚未再拾回时把卵偷走当作食物
  雌珍珠虎在繁殖时通常会找寻一个恰可容身的洞穴、岩缝甚至贝壳,巢穴一般都不大以致于雄鱼无法进入,而雌鱼也刚好可以用身体挡住洞口以护卵,但他们通常只照顾到幼鱼孵出为止,幼鱼孵出后仅有保护,几天后幼鱼会离开自行生活,幼鱼颜色隐晦、仅作小圈子游动以避免遭受掠食者攻击。
  地域型:A. compressiceps分布较广,变异种较多;A. calvus则仅限于刚果Temwe和赞比亚Kapemba之间的西南区域,变异种少,在分类上A. compressiceps和A. calvus的差异是在前者较高身、吻部较短。
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