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Phractocephalus hemioliopterus


Phractocephalus hemioliopterus
Red Tail Catfish
红尾猫
The redtail catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, is a pimelodid (long-whiskered) catfish named for its red or orange caudal fin. In Venezuela it is known as cajaro and in Brazil and even in a few parts of Bay of Bengal it is known as pirarara. It is the only extant species of the genus Phractocephalus. This fish originates from South America. Despite reaching a large size, this fish is a common aquarium fish.
Although the redtail catfish is the only living representative of this genus, there are other members that date back to the upper Miocene. P. nassi was described in 2003, and is from Urumaco, Venezuela. Another undescribed member is known to exist from Acre, Brazil. This genus has a minimum age of about 13.5 million years.
The redtail catfish is native to the Amazon, Orinoco, and Essequibo river basins of South America. It is found only in fresh water.
The redtail catfish is an extremely popular fish in Amazonian themed exhibits at public aquaria, where they are often housed with other large fish such as Colossoma macropomum, Arapaima gigas, and other large catfish.
Juveniles are often available as aquarium fish despite their eventual large size. In an aquarium where they may be well-fed, these fish can grow quite rapidly. Weekly feeding is appropriate for this catfish; overfeeding is a common cause of death in this species. It feeds heavily on live and dead fishes and other meat. Even as a juvenile of only a few inches in length, they are able to swallow many of the more common aquarium fish such as tetras, and it is only appropriate to house this fish with other species of relatively large size. Redtail catfish also have a habit of swallowing inedible objects in the aquarium. Though these are often regurgitated, both the swallowing and the regurgitation can present a problem for the fish, and these objects are best kept out of the aquarium. It is important that these fish are housed in large aquariums. A minimum size tank for a full grown (4-5 feet) is 1000+ gallons.

形态特征:红尾鲶鱼外型比较优美,体延长,宽而扁平。在嘴的上下有雪白高贵的白须共6对,其中一对较长,常向前方伸展。该鱼体色基本上有三种颜色:背部的灰黑色、腹部的雪白色、尾鳍的桔红色。头及吻部很大,一条白线从吻部一直延伸到尾部,尾和背鳍均为胭红色,其他各鳍为蓝黑色,体态优雅。眼眶上半部为白色,形成一半圈白圈。成鱼体长70~100厘米。性情凶暴(对小鱼),食量大,喜食动物性饲料,尤其是小鱼,生长迅速。中文名红尾鸭嘴俗名别名红尾鲶、狗仔鲸、枕头鲶、红尾猫英文名拉丁学名Phractocephalushemiliopteru地理分布广泛分布于亚马逊河流域繁殖方式卵生气候带濒危状态习:性性情凶暴(对小鱼),其他时候性情温和体形特征该鱼外型比较优美,体延长,宽而扁平。在嘴的上下有雪白高贵的白须共3对,其中一对较长,常向前方伸展。该鱼体色基本上有三种颜色:背部的灰黑色、腹部的雪白色、尾鳍的桔红色。且分界极为明显,头及吻部很大,一条白线从吻部一直延伸到尾部,尾和背鳍均为胭红色,其他各鳍为蓝黑色,体态优雅。眼眶上半部为白色,形成一半圈白圈。成鱼体长70~100厘米。食性:喜食动物性饲料,尤其是小鱼。此鱼饲养容易,并且生长速度很快。体型差异小的单独饲养。同种类之间有撕斗现象,胡须容易被打断,但很快会恢复。饵料为活饵、肉块等,在原产地为食用鱼,也被用来清除河道的动物死尸。此鱼在刚入水族箱时会影响进食,一段时间适应环境后,能吃光同缸中饲养所有的稍小的鱼只。红尾鲶属夜行鱼,(经多年人工养殖后,夜行的习性基本改变了)夜晚很很活跃,喜欢到处乱撞,因此在缸中不要做太复杂的造景,更不要种水草之类。在夜晚突然开灯后,容易受到惊吓而撞缸。在捕捞的时候也会因为惊吓出现短暂的退色现象。食量和排泄较多,需要加强过滤,在水质差的环境下饲养容易出现,蒙眼和翻鳃症状。(翻鳃可按照龙鱼翻鳃治疗法医治)红尾鲶能与人亲近,视觉很差,主要依靠它的胡须上的味蕾进行觅食,活泼好动,需要较大的水族箱。性成熟期的红尾鲶能发出猫一样的叫声,30厘米以下的亚成体小鱼,胃袋还没未发育完全,喂食过量或环境突然改变,以及受到惊吓之后会产生呕吐的应激现象。和鲶科的鱼一样,红尾鲶也容易吞食一些小型器械零件,但之后大多能自己吐出来。情形严重者也可以用镊子伸进胃袋中夹出来。鲶科的鱼因没有鳞片,所以不耐盐和鱼药。如果水族箱中加盐过量,它就会出现表皮粘膜落皮的症状!在给红尾鲶加盐和药物食需特别注意。容易因为加药过量和水质不良导致腮丝变黑死亡。泥鳅生命力极其顽强,在进入红尾鲶胃袋后的强烈挣扎也会造成刺激使红尾鲶呕吐。曾有一家水族馆引进6条饲养,日食鱼苗1公斤,且创下15分钟内狂吞1公斤小螃蟹的纪录。 
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