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Malapterurus electricus


Malapterurus electricus
Electric Catfish
电猫
Malapterurus have an elongate and cylindrical body that gives them the general appearance of a sausage. The eyes are small, the lips are rather thick, and the snout is rounded with widely separated nostrils. The gill openings are narrow and restricted to the sides. Malapterurus species have three pairs of barbels, and lack a dorsal fin. The pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins are rounded. The swimbladder has two elongate posterior chambers.
Species in Malapterurus are generally grayish-brown on the back and sides, fading to an off white or cream color on the ventral surfaces of the head and body. There are irregular black spots or blotches randomly distributed on the sides of the body. The posterior half of the caudal peduncle usually has a dark brown or black vertical bar and a cream vertical bar immediately before it. The edges of the anal and caudal fins have a cream margin, and the base of the caudal fin has a cream region and a dark brown crescent-shaped band immediately after it.
The electrogenic organ is derived from anterior body musculature and lines the body cavity. A fish that is 50 centimetres (19 in) in length can discharge up to 350 V.[1]
It is one of the few electic species that have been conditioned by means of reward to discharge on signal. As reported in the New York Times, April 2, 1967, a researcher, Dr. Frank J. Mandriota of City College, NY, conditioned a M. Electricus to discharge on a light signal for a reward of live worms delivered automatically. This is a first in Conditioning that modified neither glandular nor muscular responses.
M. electricus can grow as large as 122 centimetres (48 in) TL and 20 kilograms

电鲇(Malapterurus electricus;electric cat-fish)鲇形目电鲇科电鲇属的1种,以能放电而得名。最 大个体长可达1米左右,重约20千克。体长形,粗壮,背缘略平,后部侧扁。头小,吻圆。口端位,下颌有时稍突出。颌齿为排列呈宽带状的细尖绒毛齿,腭齿缺如。眼小,被以皮膜。鼻孔远离。须3对:上颌须1对,可达鳃孔;下颌须2对,位于口角下方,外侧一对最长,可伸过胸鳍基。鳃 电鲇(Malapterurus electricus)孔短,位于头侧。体无鳞。背鳍不存在。脂背鳍后位,接近尾鳍,胸鳍侧位,无硬刺。尾鳍圆形。体色灰、褐或蓝灰,腹侧白色,常有黑色斑点或斑块。偶鳍红色,奇鳍有橙或红绿。
  亦称电鲶。热带非洲广泛分布的淡水鮎类鱼,电鮎科(Malapteruridae)仅有的一种,学名为Malapterurus electricus。体短粗,口须6条,背部仅有一个脂鳍,紧位于圆形尾鳍之前。体淡褐或淡灰色,具不规则黑色斑点。体长约达1.2公尺(4呎),重约23公斤(51磅)。电鮎可产生和控制放电,电压高达450伏特,用於自卫,也可用来捕获猎物。发电器官由变异的肌肉组织组成,在鱼体裸露的软皮下形成一薄的胶质层。电鮎耐活,虽然好斗,有时也作为家养观赏鱼。古埃及人曾把电鮎画在陵墓上。
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