Pterygoplichthys pardalis

Pterygoplichthys pardalis
Common Pleco
Pterygoplichthys pardalis is a tropical fish, a Plecostomus in the Armored Catfish family (Loricariidae). Some synonyms for this species are Hypostomus pardalis, Liposarcus pardalis, Liposarcus varius, and Liposarcus jeanesianus. It is one of a number of species commonly referred to as the Common Pleco by aquarists. It will grow to a maximum length of 15.75 inches (40 centimeters). Pterygoplichthys pardalis is sometimes confused with the Hypostomus plecostomus (another armored catfish known as the "Common Plecostomus"). The two species can be distinguished by their number of dorsal rays. P. pardalis has 11–13, while the H. plecostomus has only 5–8 dorsal rays.
Natively, P. pardalis originates in South America in the Amazon River Basin in a tropical climate and prefer water with a 7.0–7.5 pH, a water hardness of 10.0–20.0 dGH, and a temperature range of 73.4–82.4 °F (23.0–28.0 °C). Although normally a bottom-dwelling fish, they have the ability to breathe air from the surface of the water during dry periods and those in which dissolved oxygen is too low. As an aquarium fish they are hardy and suited for beginners. Peaceful and well suited for most "community" tank environments, they are mainly herbivorous but will feed on a wide range of fish food offered to them. They are often known for their cleaning ability and will indeed eat algae off tank walls. However, the fish themselves often excrete relatively large quantities of waste. They are mildly territorial towards other large Plecostomus.
There is also an albino color variation of this species, usually referred to as an "Albino Plecostomus".

此鱼幼时较温和,成年后性情凶猛,有时会吃其他的鱼,将鱼咬死,然后吃掉。 体大,头部扁平,背鳍高耸,尾部侧扁,口唇发达如吸盘。鱼体呈半圆筒形,侧宽,尾鳍呈浅叉形。口下位。背绪宽大,腹部扁平,左右腹鳍相连形成圆扇形吸盘。从腹面看,很像一个小琵琶,又为鲶科,有两对小胡子,故又称为琵琶鼠鱼。鱼体呈暗褐色,体上布满黑色斑点。体长可达30厘米,野生可达40厘米。 也有变种,为金色,被称金琵琶鼠鱼。 本种鱼的饲养很简单,几乎只要是水就能养活它们。但是要养好它们最好还是给予它们弱酸性软水或者中性水质的水为佳。适宜水温20℃以上,并有剩鱼食当它们的食物。 它们经常吸附在水族箱壁或水草上,舔食青苔,是水族箱里最好的“清道夫”,同类之间有时发生争斗,可与大型热带鱼混养。