Corydoras panda

Corydoras panda
Panda Corycat
Corydoras panda is a species of catfish belonging to the genus Corydoras, of the Family Callichthyidae, and is a native member of the riverine fauna of South America. It is found in Peru, most notably in the Huanaco region, where it inhabits the Rio Aquas, the Rio Amarillae, a tributary of the Rio Pachitea, and the Rio Ucayali river system. The species was first collected by H.R. Richards in 1968, and was named Corydoras panda by Nijssen and Isbrücker in 1971. The specific name is an allusion to the appearance of the fish, which possesses large black patches surrounding the eyes, reminiscent of those found on the Giant Panda. Accordingly, the common names for this fish, which is a popular aquarium species, are Panda Corydoras and Panda Catfish.
Corydoras panda has an off-white to pinkish-orange ground colour, and when observed under certain lighting conditions, a faint greenish iridescence is present upon the flanks and the operculum. The fins of the fish match the body in ground colour, upon close inspection being seen to be hyaline or translucent with coloured fin rays, with the dorsal fin being marked by a conspicuous black blotch that covers almost the entire fin area. The caudal peduncle is marked with a black band, this black band encircling the caudal peduncle from dorsal to ventral surface. The adipose fin, supported by a small fin spine, sometimes contains black pigmentation. The head is the same ground colour as the body, with a black mask surrounding the eyes, descending vertically from the fontanel, over each eye, and ending in a triangular wedge immediately before the ventral surface of the head. The pectoral fins are positioned immediately behind the operculum, and are usually oriented horizontally when the fish is at rest, extended in a manner similar to the wings of an aeroplane. The pelvic fins are positioned upon the ventral surface of the fish, located some way behind the pectoral fins. The first ray of the dorsal fin emanates from the body at approximately its point of greatest elevation, and a vertical line drawn downwards from this point meets the attachment point of the pelvic fins. The anal fin is located far to the rear of the ventral surface of the body, the attachment point of the first fin ray being somewhat forward of the black caudal peduncle marking described above.
In common with all other members of the Family Callichthyidae, the body surface is covered, not with scales, but with bony plates known as scutes. The lines of demarcation between individual scutes can be seen upon close examination of this and almost all other Callichthyid fishes, and in the case of some specimens of this species, are highlighted by additional black pigment.
The fish possesses, in common with almost all Corydoras species, three pairs of barbels - one pair of maxillary barbels and two pairs of rictal barbels.

A fully mature adult specimen of this species attains a standard length of 55 millimetres (2.1 inches): this is the length attained by mature females, which grow larger than mature males, and also possess more rounded body outlines.

Corydoras panda inhabits clear river waters that are relatively fast-flowing, well-oxygenated, and flowing over substrates that may comprise soft sand or fine gravel. These rivers are usually well vegetated with assorted species of aquatic plants. The proximity of the home rivers of the fish to the Andes mountain range, and the replenishment of those rivers with meltwaters from Andean snows at higher altitudes, has led the fish to be adaptable to cooler temperatures than the norm for 'tropical' fishes - the temperature range of the fish is 16°C to 28°C, though the fish exhibits a marked preference for the cooler regions of this temperature spectrum, particularly in captivity. Indeed, the fish can, for limited periods, survive temperatures as low as 12°C, though captive rearing at such low temperatures is ill-advised. The native waters of Corydoras panda are consequently mineral-deficient, with a neutral to slightly acid pH, and replication of such conditions in captivity are recommended for successful maintenance.

As has already been cited above, the species has a preference for cooler than normal waters when compared to many other popular tropical fish species, and consequently, if it is intended to maintain the fishes in a 'community' aquarium setting, companions should be chosen that share the fish's tolerance or preference for cooler temperatures, around 22°C (72°F) being a good choice of maintenance temperature for the species. Given the cleanliness of the fish's native waters, scrupulous attention to water quality in the aquarium is considerably more important for this fish than for the more domesticated Corydoras species such as C. paleatus or C. aeneus. Additionally, scrupulous attention to aquarium substrate cleanliness is a must, as the fishes are intolerant of poor aquarium maintenance in this area, and succumb to stress and disease rapidly if their aquaria are not kept to a high standard. Despite this, the species remains highly popular with aquarists, upon account of the appearance of the fish, and its lively, vivacious behaviour in a well-planned aquarium setting.

Like many other Corydoras species, the Panda Catfish is a highly gregarious fish, and in common with several other smaller Corydoras species such as C. habrosus and C. pygmaeus, manifests a distinct need for numerous companions of its own species in order to thrive, and can thus be described as being more avowedly social than some of the larger members of the genus. A minimum of eight individuals should be housed in the same aquarium, and if space permits, this number should be revised upwards, as the fish exhibits a very definite preference for grouping together with others of its species. They also associate themselves easily with the Clown loach and school together in currents where sufficient numbers of their own species is lacking.
An aquarium for this species should be well furnished, ideally with a mixture of live aquatic plants, and solid furnishings providing caves, sheltered areas and hiding places to give the fish security. Floating plants to provide additional areas of shade are also welcomed by the fish.
Like all Corydoras species, the fish feeds primarily upon animal matter. The aquarist is advised, however, that the traditional use of Corydoras catfishes as putative 'scavengers' in an aquarium setting will be detrimental to the well-being of this species - it requires high quality foods for long-term maintenance, and a varied diet. Ideally, the fish should be given live foods at least intermittently, and will dine enthusiastically upon such items as Bloodworms (larvae of Chironomus midges), Daphnia, cultivated Brine Shrimp (Atermia salina), and Tubifex worms. The latter, however, should be cultivated in order to minimise the risk of introducing pathogenic organisms to the aquarium, as Tubifex live in unsanitary conditions in the wild. Freeze dried Tubifex may be preferable, as the risk of introduction of disease is eliminated. High quality flake foods are also appreciated, particularly those containing shrimp or other similar matter.
The lifespan of Corydoras panda in the aquarium has not been systematically determined, but given the longevity of other Corydoras species in the aquarium, it is reasonable to assume that well-cared for specimens will enjoy a lifespan in excess of 10 years, and frequently in excess of 15 years.

胆子小,数条群聚的时候它们就会有安全感。 虽然体格不算强壮,但只要多加照顾,仍然是活泼可爱的小精灵,讨人喜欢。