Freshwater Fish‎ > ‎

Goldfish


Carassius auratus
Goldfish
金鱼
Black Moor Fantail
黑龙睛扇尾







Calico Fantail
五花扇尾
Red & Black Fantail
红黑扇尾
Red & White Fantail
红白扇尾
Red Fantail
红扇尾
Copper Fantail
铜扇尾
Red Cap White Fantail
红头白扇尾
 
Red Butterfly
红蝶尾
Red & White Butterfly
红白蝶尾
Red & Black Butterfly
红黑蝶尾
Calico Butterfly
五花蝶尾
Black Butterfly
黑蝶尾
Black & White Butterfly
黑白蝶尾
Black LionHead
黑马来亚狮头
Calico LionHead
五花马来亚狮头
Red & Black LionHead
红黑马来亚狮头
Red & White LionHead
红白马来亚狮头
Red Cap LionHead
红头白马来亚狮头
Red LionHead
红马来亚狮头
Red Pearlscale
红珠鳞
Red & White Pearlscale
红白珠鳞
Red & Black Pearlscale
红黑珠鳞
Calico Pearlscale
五花珠鳞
Red & White Balloon Pearlscale
红白气球珠鳞
Red Crown Pearlscale
红皇冠珠鳞
Red & White Crown Pearlscale
红白皇冠珠鳞
Calico Crown Pearlscale
五花皇冠珠鳞
Black Crown Pearlscale
黑皇冠珠鳞
Red Pom Pom
红乒乓金鱼
Red Bubble Eye
红水泡
Red & White Bubble Eye
红白水泡
Red & Black Bubble Eye
红黑水泡
Black Bubble Eye
黑水泡
Calico Bubble Eye
五花水泡
Black & White Bubble Eye
黑白水泡
Red Celestial Eye
红朝天眼
   
Red Telescope Eye
红龙睛
Red & White Telescope Eye
红白龙睛
Red & Black Telescope Eye
红黑龙睛
Calico Telescope Eye
五花龙睛
Black Oranda
黑狮头
Calico Oranda
五花狮头
Red & Black Oranda
红黑狮头
Red & White Oranda
红白狮头
Red Cap Oranda
红头白狮头
Red Oranda
红狮头
Black Oranda
铜狮头
Black & White Oranda
黑白狮头
Red Ranchu
红兰寿
Red & White Ranchu
红白兰寿
Calico Ranchu
五花兰寿
Black Ranchu
黑兰寿
Red Cap Ranchu
红头白兰寿
Sakura Ranchu
樱花兰寿
  
Red Ryukin
红琉金
Red & White Ryukin
红白琉金
Red & Black Ryukin
红黑琉金
Calico Ryukin
五花琉金
White Ryukin
白琉金
Sakura Ryukin
樱花琉金
Copper Ryukin
铜琉金
 
Calico Shubunkin
五花寿光锦
Red Comet Goldfish
红彗尾金鱼
Red & White Comet Goldfish
红白彗尾金鱼
 

The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. It was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated, and is one of the most commonly kept aquarium fish.
A relatively small member of the carp family (which also includes the koi carp and the crucian carp), the goldfish is a domesticated version of a less-colorful carp (Carassius auratus) native to east Asia. It was first domesticated in China more than a thousand years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration and coloration (various combinations of white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black are known).Goldfish were bred from Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in China, and they remain the closest wild relative of the goldfish. Previously, some sources claimed the Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as the wild version of the goldfish. However, they are differentiated by several characteristics. C. auratus have a more pointed snout while the snout of a C. carassius is well rounded. C. gibelio often has a grey/greenish color, while crucian carps are always golden bronze. Juvenile crucian carp have a black spot on the base of the tail which disappears with age. In C. auratus this tail spot is never present. C. auratus have fewer than 31 scales along the lateral line while crucian carp have 33 scales or more.
When found in nature, goldfish are olive green. Introduction of goldfish into the wild can cause problems for native species. Goldfish can hybridize with certain other species of carp. Within three breeding generations, the vast majority of the goldfish spawn revert to their natural olive color. The mutation that gave rise to the domestic goldfish is also known from other cyprinid species, such as common carp and tench. Koi may also interbreed with the goldfish to produce a sterile hybrid fish.
There are many different varieties of domesticated goldfish. Fancy goldfish are unlikely to survive in the wild because of their bright fin colors; however the hardier varieties such as the Shubunkin may survive long enough to breed with wild cousins. Common and comet goldfish can survive, and even thrive, in any climate that can support a pond.

Chinese tradition classifies goldfish into 4 main types. These classifications are not commonly used in the West.
- Ce (may also be called "grass")—Goldfish without fancy anatomical features. These include the common goldfish, comet goldfish and Shubunkin.
- Wen—Goldfish have a fancy tail, e.g., Fantails and Veiltails ("Wen" is also the name of the characteristic headgrowth on such strains as Oranda and Lionhead)
- Dragon Eye—Goldfish have extended eyes, e.g. Black Moor, Bubble Eye, and Telescope Eye
- Egg—Goldfish have no a dorsal fin, and usually have an 'egg-shaped' body, e.g. Lionhead (note that a Bubble Eye without a dorsal fin belongs to this group)

The goldfish is classified as a coldwater fish, and can live in unheated aquaria at a temperature comfortable for humans. However, rapid changes in temperature (for example in an office building in winter when the heat is turned off at night) can kill them, especially if the tank is small. Care must also be taken when adding water, as the new water may be of a different temperature. Temperatures under about 10 °C  are dangerous to fancy varieties, though commons and comets can survive slightly lower temperatures. Extremely high temperatures (over 30 °C ) can also harm goldfish. However, higher temperatures may help fight protozoan infestations by accelerating the parasite's life-cycle—thus eliminating it more quickly. The optimum temperature for goldfish is between 20 °C  and 22 °C 
Like all fish, goldfish do not like to be petted. In fact, touching a goldfish can endanger its health, because it can cause the protective slime coat to be damaged or removed, exposing the fish’s skin to infection from bacteria or water-born parasites. However, goldfish respond to people by surfacing at feeding time, and can be trained or acclimated to taking pellets or flakes from human fingers. The reputation of goldfish dying quickly is often due to poor care. The lifespan of goldfish in captivity can extend beyond 10 years.
If left in the dark for a period of time, goldfish gradually change color until they are almost gray. Goldfish produce pigment in response to light, in a similar manner to how human skin becomes tanned in the sun. Fish have cells called chromatophores that produce pigments which reflect light, and give the fish coloration. The color of a goldfish is determined by which pigments are in the cells, how many pigment molecules there are, and whether the pigment is grouped inside the cell or is spaced throughout the cytoplasm.
Because goldfish eat live plants, their presence in a planted aquarium can be problematic. Only a few aquarium plant species for example Cryptocoryne and Anubias, can survive around goldfish, but they require special attention so that they are not uprooted. 

[The Fantail goldfish is the western form of the Ryukin that possesses an egg-shaped body, a high dorsal fin, a long quadruple caudal fin, and no shoulder hump.The Fantail goldfish may have either metallic or nacreous scales and normal or telescope eyes. Its finnage are less well developed than the Ryukin. It supports double anal and tail Fins. The anal and caudal fins are well divided into two matching halves. Although generally considered a hardy goldfish, Fantails can be sensitive to prolonged exposure to low water temperatures. Keeping Fantails in an aquarium requires an ideal temperature ranging between 13 to 21°C]

金鱼起源于中国,12世纪已开始金鱼家化的遗传研究,经过长时间培育,品种不断优化,现在世界各国的金鱼都是直接或间接由我国引种的。 在人类文明史上,中国金鱼已陪伴着人类生活了十几个世纪,是世界观赏鱼史上最早的品种。在一代代金鱼养殖者的努力下,中国金鱼至今仍向世人演绎着动静之间美的传奇。作为世界上最有文化内涵的观赏鱼,它在国人心中很早就奠定了其国鱼之尊贵身份。动物界--脊索动物门--脊椎动物亚门--鱼纲--硬骨鱼纲--鲤形目--鲤科--鲤亚科--鲫属--鲫鱼。
金鱼和鲫鱼同属于一个物种,在科学上用同一个学名(Carassius auratus)。金鱼也称“金鲫鱼”,近似鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)但无口须,是由鲫鱼演化而成的观赏鱼类。金鱼的品种很多,颜色有红、橙、紫、蓝、墨、银白、五花等,分为文种、草种、龙种、蛋种四类。
金鱼易于饲养,形态优美的金鱼能美化环境,很受人们的喜爱,是我国特有的观赏鱼。
在中国,至少早在宋朝(960~1279)即已家养。野生状态下,体绿褐或灰色,然而现存在著各种各样的变异,可以出现黑色、花色、金色、白色、银白色以及三尾、龙睛、或无背鳍等变异。几个世纪的选择和培育这样不正常的个体,已经产生了125个以上的金鱼品种。包括常见的具三叶拂尾的纱翅,戴绒帽的狮子头以及眼睛突出且向上的望天。杂食性,以植物及小动物为食。在饲养下也吃小型甲壳动物,并可用剁碎的蚊类幼虫、谷类和其他食物作为补充饲料。春夏进行产卵,进入这一季节,体色开始变得鲜艳,雌鱼腹部膨大,雄鱼鳃盖、背部及胸鳍上可出现针头大小的追星。卵附于水生植物上,孵化约需一周。观赏的金鱼已知可活25年之久,然而平均寿命要短得多。在美国东部很多地区,由公园及花园饲养池中逃逸的金鱼,已经野化了。野生後复原了本来颜色,并能由饲养在盆中的5~10公分(2~4英寸)长到30公分。
金鱼是我国人民乐于饲养的观赏鱼类。它身姿奇异,色彩绚丽,可以说是一种天然的活的艺术品,因而为人们所喜爱。根据史料的记载和近代 科学实验的资料,科学家已经查明,金鱼起源于我国普通食用的野生鲫鱼。它先由银灰色的野生鲫鱼变为红黄色的金鲫鱼,然后再经过不同时期的家养,由红黄色金鲫鱼逐渐变成为各个不同品种的金鱼。作为观赏鱼 ,远在中国的晋朝时代(265~420年)已有红色鲫鱼的记录出现。在唐代的“放生池”里,开始出现红黄色鲫鱼,宋代开始出现金黄色鲫鱼,人们开始用池子养金鱼,金鱼的颜色出现白花和花斑两种。到明代金鱼搬进鱼盆。在动物分类学上是属于脊椎动物门、有头亚门、有颌部、鱼纲、真口亚纲、鲤形目、鲤科、鲤亚科、鲫属的硬骨鱼类。金鱼和鲫鱼同属于一个物种,在科学上用同一个学名

鱼类和人类的关系甚为密切,早在石器时代,人们就捕捉鱼类作为食物。在距今3200多年前,中国已有了养鱼的记录(根据殷墟出土甲骨卜辞),由于长期的捕鱼、养鱼,同鱼类接触的机会颇多,这也就是对鱼类的观察机会非常之多,了解也多,所以很容易发现在野生鱼类中发生变异的种类,尤其是变为金色或红色的种类更易引起人们的关注。当时人们把金色或红色的鱼类统称为“金鱼”。
皇冠金鱼我国明代伟大的本草学家李时珍,在他的《本草纲目》中写有:“金鱼有鲤鲫鳅鳖数种,鳅鳖尤难得,独金鲫耐久,前古罕知”……称为“金鱼”的鱼原有四种,“金鲫”即颜色变为黄、红的鲫鱼,以后由于单独培育金鲫,变化越来越大,所以,“金鱼”这一名称只代表由金鲫培育出来的各变异品种,即现今的金鱼。
金鱼的故乡是在浙江的嘉兴和杭州两地。根据日本学者松井佳一(1934)的研究,中国金鱼传至日本的最早记录是1502年。金鱼传到英国是在17世纪末叶,到18世纪中叶,双尾金鱼已传遍欧洲各国,传到美国是在1874年。
金鱼的外部形态,与鲫鱼有极大的不同,几乎没有一个单一性状没有发生变异。其体态变异包括体色、体形、鳞片数目、鳞片形态、背鳍、胸鳍、腹鳍、臀鳍、尾鳍、头形、眼睛、鳃盖、鼻隔膜等变异。这里主要举出体色变异、头形的变异和眼睛的变异
Comments