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Polypterus lapradei


Polypterus lapradei
Lapradei Nile Bichir
鳄鱼恐龙
P. bichir lapradei is visually similar to its close relative, Polypterus bichir. Its body is elongated and subcylindrical, and covered in ganoid scales. As its name suggests (Poly = "many" and -terus = "finned"), P. bichir lapradei's most striking asset is the row of dorsal finlets along its back. These finlets, which can number up to 15 in some specimens, constitute a single dorsal fin. This fin is divided by rigid spines, which can be raised or lowered at will (often in response to a threat, or for stability).
This is a "lower jaw" bichir, meaning that its lower jaw is somewhat longer than its upper jaw (i.e. an underbite). Other "lower jaw" bichir species include P. endlicheri and P. ansorgii. A commonly-encountered "upper jaw" species is P. senegalus.
They have prominent external nostrils, which they use to great effect in compensating for their relatively weak eyesight.
P. bichir lapradei's coloration and patterning varies quite a bit region-to-region, but certain characteristics are almost always present. These include:
Dark, longitudinal bands, punctuated by irregular, vertical stripes.
Grayish green lateral and dorsal scales.
Grey to white ventral coloration.
These bichirs use a coordinated network of fins for locomotion. Their pectoral fins are used for general navigation---they help the fish turn, "brake", and "walk" across the bottom of their environment. When held rigid, the pectoral fins are strong enough to allow for short-distance travel across dry land. The ventral fins act as a keel would on a ship, keeping the bichir's subcylindrical body level. The caudal fin, which connects directly to the dorsal fin, is the fish's primary means of propulsion. Although not a particularly fast species, P. bichir lapradei is capable of achieving quick bursts in pursuit of its prey (usually by folding all of its fins tightly against its body, and vigorously thrusting its caudal fin).
Bichirs are sexually dimorphic; the males are characterized by a fleshy, wide anal fin, while the females' anal fin is thin and "sharp."
One of the most interesting characteristics of this (and every) bichir is the presence of a modified swim bladder, which has evolved into a primitive lung structure. The "lung" is divided into two sections, and enables the bichirs to supplement their oxygen intake by taking gulps at the surface of the water. This function has enabled them to survive in a great variety of water conditions. It also enables them to survive out of water, albeit for relatively brief periods of time.
P. bichir lapradei is a fairly large bichir species, reaching around 30" total length in adulthood.

习 性:相对于别的恐龙,鳄鱼比较神经一些。
  体形特征:可以生长到60厘米以上。鳄鱼恐龙王的特点是从头后开始有几条黄色的纹路,到身体中部纹路消失,取而代之的是一些黄黑交错的斑块,成体身上有黄绿色光泽,是一种非常漂亮的恐龙王,但有的个体身上的纹路不是那么明显。
  食 性:恐龙是肉食性的鱼类,对饲料接受能力强,什么小鱼、面包虫、红虫、动物内脏、鸡肉之类的照单全收,但内脏、鸡肉之类的混水,首选应该是小鱼。恐龙捕食的方式一般为守株待兔,当小鱼游到嘴边时迅速咬住,然后象蛇一样吞掉,在饥饿的时候也会主动出击。有的鱼友说恐龙主要靠嗅觉找寻食物,视力很差,这个观点我不敢苟同,一般的视力差的鱼的眼球都会退化的很小,比如尼罗河魔鬼,有的鱼比如鲤科的盲鱼甚至眼睛退化,但恐龙可不是这样,都长着一对“水汪汪”的大眼睛,我也多次看到恐龙对较远地方的小鱼主动出击。 虽然有时候恐龙在寻找食物的时候会低头在缸底游动,就象寻找猎物的猎犬一样,似乎是靠嗅觉在觅食,但我认为它的视力比想象的要好很多。
  护 理:缸:恐龙身体的结构比较柔软,因此对生活环境的大小要求不那么苛刻,对于30厘米左右的小型品种,60厘米的缸就可以了,但为了其良好的生长水体越大越好,对于恐龙王、大花恐龙这类大型品种,就得用大型水族箱饲养了,要想其能生长到50厘米以上,最好准备一米五以上的缸。有条件的话可以在鱼缸中给它们造景,铺点底沙,放块沉木之类的(沉木是个好东西,据说能在水里放出的使鱼心情稳定的化学物质,其本身也可以给鱼提供藏身之处),也可以放些PVC的空心管供其躲藏。水:恐龙一般生活在弱酸至中性的水中,但其对水质要求十分低,饲养的时候不必太在意什么PH软硬度之类的问题,一般的自来水困上几天就可以用了,换水的时候甚至可以直接换自来水(呵呵,慎重起见还是用困过的水吧)。至于水温,听有的鱼友说恐龙可以适应很低的水温,我并不赞同这种做法,因为想养好一种鱼就要尽量给予其最好的生活条件,温度应最好在25以上,呵呵,温度低了小心官府告你虐待动物。日常管理:恐龙差不多是最好养的热带鱼了。第一,它不怕缺氧,恐龙的鳔已经进化成为辅助的呼吸器官(这种现象在古代鱼中很常见,例如海象、弓鳍鱼、刀类、尼罗河魔鬼、鳄类、肺鱼等都有这个特征),所以它在水中氧气不够的时候就干脆呼吸上几口空气,大家可以经常看到恐龙游到水面上呼吸空气。第二,恐龙的体表覆盖有菱形硬鳞,形成了一层保护层,因此恐龙可以忍受恶劣的水质,也有不错的抗药性,很少生病。但这样并不是说明恐龙百毒不侵,要想养好恐龙还是要给予其良好的环境,虽然其适应力超强,但超出了其忍受的限度照样挂掉,对小恐龙更要注意,幼小的恐龙抗药性抗盐性都较差。混养:恐龙是下层鱼,因此混养时可以混养一些中上层的鱼,但要注意大小不要相差悬殊,因为恐龙也不是什么善良之辈,饥饿时可以吃掉很大的鱼只。另外也要小心恐龙被别的鱼挂掉,所以建议不要和红尾猫、虎皮鸭嘴之类的混养。另外注意:恐龙绝对不能和肺鱼混养,肺鱼会疯狂地攻击恐龙,虽然恐龙有硬鳞保护,但也敌不过肺鱼的大牙。哎,也不知道这哥俩有什么民族仇阶级恨,反正一见面就死磕,大概是肺鱼觉得恐龙比它稍微英俊那么一点点,有点嫉妒地说。
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