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Scleropages formosus


Scleropages formosus
Asian Arowana
龙鱼
Juvenile Banjar Red Arowana
二号红龙
Red Tail Golden Arowana
红尾金龙
Juvenile Red Arowana
红龙
Juvenile Golden Crossback Arowana
过背金龙 
  

Golden Head Crossback Arowana
金头




The Asian arowana comprises several varieties of freshwater fish in the genus Scleropages. Some sources differentiate these varieties into multiple species, while others consider the different strains to belong to a single species, Scleropages formosus. They have several other common names, including Asian bonytongue, dragon fish, and a number of names specific to different varieties.
Native to Southeast Asia, Asian arowanas inhabit blackwater rivers, slow-moving waters flowing through forested swamps and wetlands. Adults feed on other fish, while juveniles feed on insects.

Like all members of Osteoglossidae, Asian arowanas are highly adapted to fresh water and are incapable of surviving in the ocean. Therefore, their spread throughout the islands of southeast Asia suggests they diverged from other osteoglossids before the continental breakup was complete. Genetic studies have confirmed this hypothesis, showing that their ancestor of the Asian arowanas diverged from the ancestor of the Australian arowanas, S. jardinii and S. leichardti, about 140 million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous period. This divergence took place in the eastern margin of Gondwanaland, with the ancestors of Asian arowanas carried on the Indian subcontinent or smaller landmasses into Asia. The morphological similarity of all Scleropages species shows that little evolutionary change has taken place recently for these ancient fish.
The first description of these species was published between 1839 and 1844 (1844 is the date commonly cited) by German naturalists Salomon Müller and Hermann Schlegel, under the name Osteoglossum formosum, although later this species was placed in Scleropages with the name S. formosus.

Several distinct, naturally occurring colour varieties are recognised, each found in a specific geographic region. They include the following:
  - The green is the most common variety, found in Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sumatra), Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia,  and Malaysia.
  - The silver Asian (not to be confused with the silver arowana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is considered part of the green variety by some. It has two subvarieties, the "grey tail silver" or "Pinoh arowana," and the "yellow tail silver," each found in a different part of the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
  - The red-tailed golden is found in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
  - The gold crossback, blue Malayan, or Bukit Merah blue is native to the state of Pahang and the Bukit Merah area in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.
  - The red, super red, blood red, or chili red is known only from the upper part of the Kapuas River and nearby lakes in western Borneo, Indonesia.

龙鱼,原产地称之为AROWANA,华人的发音为“亚罗娃娜”,是西班牙语“长舌”的意思。其学名“SCLEROPAGES”是舌头、硬咽状的意思,按分类学上龙鱼隶属于OSTEOGLOSSIDAE科(骨舌鱼科,又叫骨咽鱼科)。亚洲龙鱼按纯正血统可细分为4种:

红龙
产于印尼加里曼丹、苏门答腊一带水域,依产地不同又可分为一号红龙及二号红龙。红龙的腮盖上有鲜红的印块,鱼鳞的色彩有红、橘红、深红、血红等,一般来说,一号红龙的色彩为红色,可分为辣椒红龙及血红龙,二号红色彩则为橘红色。 超级红或者一号红龙是养殖者和养鱼爱好者这些行家们通用的术语,包括了辣椒红和血红这两大品种。          

一号红龙超级红和黄尾或者青龙的配种,所以也叫做班札称红龙【Banjar Red】基于配种的养系,这种龙鱼看上去简直就像是一条一带有一块块红斑的黄尾龙鱼或者青龙。一些等级较高的鱼可能还会像超级红一般长有红彤彤的鳍,但却永远都不可能会有红色的唇和触须这龙鱼身体后端三面鳍上的黑色斑点都是依着鳍的形状而排列的超级红鳍上的斑纹则与硬剌形成十字花样。二号红龙黄尾龙和质量同等差的青龙配种。

红龙身上的色彩通常快则一年,慢则十年便会完全显现,一般时间为四~五年。很多时候,鱼儿的色彩是渐次地先由黄转为橙,再以橙转为浅红,到了最后才转为深红色。有时鱼儿突然在一~两周内全身转为红色而感到太过诧异。

辣椒红它有两种:第一种鳞片的底色是蓝的;第二种的头部则长有绿色的鱼皮。它之价昂乃因它的稀罕及其身上所覆盖着的粗框鳞片【故其深红色彩】深红色的鳃盖还有比较大的鳍和尾鳍。此鱼的幼鱼可以它较宽的身体、较大的眼睛、菱形的尾鳍、较尖和突出的头部以及红色的鳍,特别是其胸鳍,轻易地被确认出来。它大眼睛的直径通常相等于眼睛和嘴尖的距离。鳞片带有淡淡的绿和黄或橙色。不过;此鱼的色彩最快也要等一年半的时间才会显现出,慢的话就要等上四年或者更长的时间弓血红龙成鱼的身体主要由细框的鳞片覆盖着,鳃盖也同样是红色的。此鱼有红色的鳍,不过身体却比较细和长。和辣椒红不同的是,血红的色彩会很快地在一年后便显现,它幼鱼的身体比辣椒红龙幼鱼的相对地来得长,鳍和眼睛也比较小。血红龙幼鱼的鳍也一样是红色的。所不同的是它的尾鳍呈圆形,头部也不比辣椒红龙幼鱼的突,鳞片略带浅绿和粉红的色泽。 


橙红龙一般可长至九十公分,此鱼的鳃盖为橙红色鳞片通常也只是橙色的。有些橙红龙的鳍是橙红色的,而一些劣等橙红龙的甚至是黄色的呢,独特的是幼鱼的头部比较圆。此红龙鳞片上的色彩亦因为常常远不及血红或辣椒红的亮丽而越发使人觉的它暗淡无光。眼睛比辣椒红小的橙红龙也是三种红龙当中价钱最低的。其身体的上半部,包括它第五和第六排整整两列的鳞片都是很独特的黑或深褐色。因此,它鳞片上的金色色彩最多也只能达第四排。这一点絻对有别于过背金。它和过背金还有另一价差别,就是尾鳍上端三分之一的部分和背鳍都是深绿色的。至于尾鳍下端三分之二的部份,则与臀鳍、腹鳍和胸鳍一样都是橙红色的。这一点倒是和超级红颇相象的和青龙相似,一条七~八公分长的红尾金所有鳍都是黄色的。只有在鱼儿的主食是富含红色素【beta-carotene】的小虾时,鳍部的红色才会在它长至十~十二公分长的时候显现。到了它十五~二十公分长的时候,鳞片的金边亦已形成。这种镶金边的鳞片最多会一直”攀爬”到第四排为止。然而,如果你把过背金和红尾金并排的话,你就会清楚察觉到两者之间的差异。一样为十五公分长,而且色彩均已达到了第四排的鳞片,但你一样会发觉到过背金金色到底还是比红尾金的来得深。这种龙鱼亦有不同的底色-蓝、金和青色。

过背金龙
目前价格最高亚洲龙鱼,过背金龙的魅力和美丽之处在于其鳞片的亮度。和红尾金龙不同,成热的过背金龙全身都长了金色的鳞片,不仅如此,过背金的颜色也会随着鱼龄的增加而加深,就好比从鱼身的一边跨越到另一边去似的。过背金有几种不同的底色,但多以紫色为主。其他较为罕见的尚有蓝、绿、金色。七~八公司长的幼鱼,其鳃盖可见一抹金。紧接着便是由头部延伸到尾部那青黄色的直线。长到九~十公分长的时候,紫色过背金的紫色色底鳞片就已经长到第四排了。最后到了适宜出口的十二~十五公分长的时候,过背金与红尾金尾巴和鳍的颜色都一样,但前者的这一大特征却和价格较低的后者形成了强烈的对比。不过有些过背金也会有颜色较浅的鳍。

红尾金龙
红尾金龙的特征为鱼体背部为墨绿色,背鳍及尾鳍上半部则为偏褐色。鳞框为闪耀的金黄色,好的金龙金黄色泽甚至会发至鳞片的1/2。鳃盖部份没有红色印块,而完全呈现出亮丽金黄色。 
此种龙鱼因其价格适中,鱼种漂亮,在印尼相当流行,在东南亚各国也相当受欢迎,主要产地在印尼的加里曼丹及苏门达腊。

青龙
分布于泰国、马来西亚、越南、缅甸等水域,期鳞片呈青色,鱼鳍及体色皆为青黄色,体型与其他类龙鱼相比偏小,侧线特别明显。好的青龙在其鳞片上有紫色的斑块,如没有,则为最便宜的一种龙鱼。有些青龙鳞片是半透明的,有些是不透明的。它的侧线在其灰绿色的鳞片当中更是显眼。上好青龙的身体上部会有淡淡的蓝或紫色。成鱼的头部也较圆和较小。 
青龙鱼的体型呈纺锤形,背部橄榄色,体侧从鳃盖后直伸到尾未有数条银蓝色纵纹,臀鳍部也有与体色相似的纵纹,尾鳍长而呈叉形。雄鱼柠檬色纵纹;雌鱼的蓝色纵纹加银灰色纵纹。 
青龙鱼体长可达60公分,青龙有两种,一种各鳍都有黑色素的,一种各鳍都是黄色素的. 
各鳍为青黄色,鳞片为青色。吻端为黄色,成鱼时全身为金青色,故名为青龙 

Max. Size (最大大小) 50 - 90 cm
pH 6.5 - 7.5
Temp. (水温) 24 - 30 degrees celsius
Water Hardness (水的硬度) 8 - 18 dH
Salinity (盐度)  
Stocking Ratio (放养比例) 1 Male:1 Female, (1雄:1雌)
Diet (饮食) Carnivore (肉食性)
Life Span (寿命) 8 - 18 years , (5 - 10年)
   
Sexing
Asian Arowana are hard to sex, especially when they are young. Generally, males are larger in size and fins then its female siblings which give then a more errogant look. They also has wider and deeper jaw(to hold the eggs and fries). Females, on the other hand is smaller in size and has a more rounded body. It takes a lot of experience to sex mature asian arowana, leave alone the youngs. Even then, only when they started breeding, then you can be 100% sure which one is male and which is female.
Time taken for arowana to mature depends on the condition they are growing in. The better why are care of, the earlier they will reach maturity. Generally female takes 2-3 years and male 4-5 years to reach maturity
性别鉴定 雄性龙鱼口腔似乎较大,可能为日后育苗做准备。另外,胸鳍和而呈深红色,且鱼体本身便略瘦长于母鱼,这一点,由鱼池上方观察便可轻易地发觉。另外,雌性龙鱼身材总较公鱼肥短,而且腹部较易有膨胀之感,胸鳍与头部色泽,较不如公鱼来得深。
Origin South East Asia
起源地 东南亚
   
Tank Compatibility/
Environment Specifications
Do not keep with smaller fish as they will be mistaken as prey. Keep with larger fish such as Tinfoil Barbs, Giant Gourami, large Catfish,Stingrays, Siamese Tigers, myleus schomburgkii, semaprochilodus taeniurus
Lighting plays a larger role when keeping an Asian Arowana than it does with many other fish. Good lighting is required to get your fish to develop good coloration and sunlight is beneficial to this end. You should however never place the aquarium in direct sunlight since the fish are sensitive to rapid changes in the temperature. To much sunlight can also cause sever algae problems. The lighting in an aquarium dedicated to keeping Arowana fish should preferable increase and degrees the light levels slowly since the fish otherwise might become very stressed and injure themselves against the decoration, aquarium glass etc.
Effective Biological, Chemical, and Mechanical filtration should be deemed necessary when keeping Asian Arowana. They are carnivores will create a lot of waste material with put a large stress on the filters. One suggested means of filtration would be a Bio-Wheel type system. Bio-Wheel type systems not only helps clean the aquarium but also help oxygenate the water to a small degree, which is especially good when keeping larger fish. Combined with a good carbon element, this and good gravel at the bottom of the tank should help keep the Ammonia, Ammonium, and Nitrites down. It is necessary to change out about 25% of the tank‘s water each week.
其他鱼类的兼容性/
环境规格
不适合和体形小的鱼类养在一起 适合体形较大的鱼例如 魟鱼, 飞凤 , 泰国虎 或者粗线银版
每周至少换水20%-30%,氨含量不要超过0.1百万分率(mg/1)。不要使温度、PH值突然变化,如变化突然会导致龙鱼的突然死亡。每周测试PH值和其它有毒物质的含量以遭遇不策。换水时一定要小心谨慎,要避免龙鱼受惊。而且饲养龙鱼的时候一定要避免完全的换成新水,否则会对鱼造成伤害。如果你见到龙鱼的鳍和鳞片脱落的话,就是换水过多造成的你可以暂停换水它们就会自然的复原;但换水量也不可太少,太少会使鱼鳍变得不透明、眼球浑浊严重的会造成腮盖翻转。
   
Diet/Feeding Regime  Crickets, Centipedes, Live Fishes, Fish Meat, Live Prawns/shrimps, Krill, Bloodworms Tubifex, Worms, Mealworms, Earthworms, Frogs。 Small Arowana (below 6 inches) should be fed three times a day, medium Arowana (6 inches to 14 inches) twice a day and large Arowana (above 14 inches) once a day or alternate day. Variety in food is important to avoid nutritional deficiency. High fat food like feeder fish should only be used sparingly to avoid drop eye problem. If arowana is overfed for a long period of time, it may lost its appetite and starve itself for a periods of a few days. Overfeeding can also shorten the lifespan of Arowana and affect its breeding capability.
饮食饲喂制度 蟋蟀,蜈蚣,活鱼,鱼肉,活跳虾/虾,磷虾,血虫蚓,蠕虫,Mealworms,蚯蚓,青蛙. 小鱼每天两到三次. 中鱼每天两次,大鱼每天一次
   
Breeding  
繁殖  
   
Disease  
病症  

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