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Pterophyllum altum




Pterophyllum altum
Altum Angelfish
埃及神仙鱼

Pterophyllum altum, also referred to as the Altum Angelfish, Deep Angelfish, or Orinoco Angelfish, occurs strictly in the Orinoco River Basin and the Upper Rio Negro watershed in Southern Venezuela, Southeastern Colombia and extreme Northern Brazil. The species is the largest of the genus and specimens exceeding 50 cm in height (from tip of dorsal to tip of anal fin) have been reported in the wild; in aquariums, specimens are known to have grown to over 40 cm. Its natural base color is silver but with three brownish/red vertical stripes and red striations into the fins. The species may show red spotting and a blueish green dorsal overcast when mature and when aroused exhibits a black operculum spot. Characteristic of this species is an acute incision or notch above the nares (supraorbital indention). All true Orinoco Altum specimens show this trait, whereas commercial hybrids product of crosses to Pterophyllum scalare, that are occasionally performed by breeders to sell them as "Orinoco Altum", may not exhibit the trait or it may appea
r in a lesser degree. The true wildcaught Orinoco Altum is among the most challenging among tropical fish to breed in captivity. Most Altum Angels are more frequently found in the well oxygenated, extremely soft waters of Upper and Middle Orinoco tributaries shed from the Guiana Shield Highlands, preferring a pH range between 4.5 to 5.8. These are very transparent blackwaters with almost nil conductivity. Temperature range in these waters is between 78 and 84 °F (26 and 29 °C). They are also found in the Atabapo River and Inirida River floodplain, down the Casiquiare and Guainía floodplain where the Rio Negro is born, before entering Brazilian territory. Unlike P. scalare which prefer to spawn on the submerged leaves of plants and trees in the flooded rainforest, P. altum prefers to spawn on submerged roots and tree branches in a moderate water current. This species is recommended for intermediate to advanced aquarists due to the detailed maintenance it requires for proper health. Pterophyllum altum is the national fish of Venezuela and an image of the fish appears on some currency bills of that country.

原产地为南美洲的委内瑞拉境内的欧利那可河和哥伦比亚的Rio Orinoco流域及其上游的支流Rio Atabapo均有发现。外形与神仙鱼相似,但体形较大,长可达50厘米,体色银灰中带浅黄,背部黄色较深,腹部较浅,且在背部有小的棕色斑点。体侧也有3条垂直黑条纹。黑眼珠红眼圈。额头的角度较一般普通的神仙鱼高,因此显得嘴巴看起来略为似乎往上翘起。它们的背鳍和臀鳍的高度相较一般普通的神仙鱼而言,也显得额外高而修长,当其鱼鳍完全伸展的时候,整体的感觉就会显得分外雍容高贵,而且野性的味道十足!具有令人无法抗拒的魅力。埃及神仙鱼的最适生长水温26-29℃,喜弱酸性软水,溶氧量丰富,水域宽阔,有阔叶水草和较好的光照条件,饵料鲜活,也吞食鱼苗。大神仙鱼爱静,易受惊,受惊以后,对侵犯干扰能迅速作出愤怒抗争的反应。有时爱欺侮不同种类的神仙鱼、小鱼等,故不宜混养 

Max. Size (最大大小)10 - 15 cm
pH4.8 - 6.2
Temp. (水温)26 - 29 degrees celsius
Water Hardness (水的硬度)1 - 5 dH
Salinity (盐度) 
Stocking Ratio (放养比例)1 Male:1 Female, (1雄:1雌)
Diet (饮食)Omnivorous (杂食性)
Life Span (寿命)5 - 10 years , (5 - 10年)
  
Sexing
Extremely difficult. Look for a slight Cichlid hump on the male, although it's not always accurate. The best way to sex is to look at the breeding tubes on a pair when they are spawning. The male's breeding tube will be much smaller than the female's.
性别鉴定 分别雌雄神仙鱼可从他们生殖乳突的不同加以区别,雄鱼的输精管是细而尖而雌鱼的输卵管是粗而圆,产卵后2-3天会孵化,刚刚孵化的小于会以一根细丝附着在产卵床上大约一个星期,利用完卵黄囊后,成鱼会用口移动子稚鱼到安全的地方这段时间亲鱼会负责照顾小鱼,你可以在一旁不打扰他们静静观察他们育子的有趣行为
Origin Orinoco River Basin and the Upper Rio Negro watershed in Southern Venezuela, Southeastern Colombia and extreme Northern Brazil
起源地南美洲
  
Tank Compatibility/
Environment Specifications
Best kept in a single species or specialized "Guyana shield or Orinoco Blackwater habitat" aquarium containing species of the same habitat. Other species within this habitat: Satanoperca daemon, Guianacara sp., Uaru fernandezyepezi, Mesonauta insignis, Dicrossus filamentosus, Apistogramma iniridae, L128, L200, Paracheirodon axelrodi, Hyphessobrycon bentosi, Hemigrammus rhodostomus
Although the Altum isn't a long fish it is very tall with dramatically elongate fins, in fact the Altum can be twice as tall as it is long, this must be taken into account when housing this fish. A low bioload is recommended and as high as a D.O. level as can be provided. Tank decoration should consist of medium to coarse grain white river sand (1-2mm), bogwood simulating tree roots in water, stones. Plants are optional and you should take into account that it is hard to maintaine plants in such water conditions.
其他鱼类的兼容性/
环境规格
适合单养或与同类鱼混养。 适合混养的鱼类:七彩神仙[同属温驯鱼种]、皇冠琵琶鼠[好处是可以清除残饵]、大胡子异形、三间鼠.
半裸缸饲养为最佳,故名思义就是以裸缸来饲养再加上一些大型沈木的组合名词。以裸缸方式管理起来是大大的方便多了,当然配备器材也省掉不少开销,排泄物好清理、换水方便、水质掌控也比较容易。但是观赏价值就降低许多,可是如果再加入大型沈木就大大不同了,沈木会释放出腐朽酸、有机酸等等物质可以软化水质,模拟原产地水质种种好处,即可美化环境又有其用处,叫人如何不采用这样子的作法,不要怕埃及神仙会躲在里面不敢出来,因为这是不可能的,健康的埃及神仙是非常的贪吃又不怕人的,完全不会神经质。
  
Diet/Feeding Regime Will take most foods but prefers live/frozen such as bloodworm and brine shrimp supplemented with high quality Cichlid pellets. Feed once or twice a day.
饮食饲喂制度 孑子、丝蚯蚓、水蚤、水生昆虫、小鱼、小虾等. 每天一次到两次.
   
Breeding  
繁殖  
   
Disease  
病症       





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