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Swordtail


Xiphophorus hellerii
Swordtail
剑鱼
Red Sword
红剑
Red Wagtail Sword
红黑尾剑
Red Calico Sword
红花剑
Red Comet Sword
红双线剑
Red Tuxedo Sword
红燕尾剑
Yellow Tuxedo Sword
黄燕尾剑
Golden Sword
金剑
Golden Comet Sword
金双线剑
Golden Wagtail Sword
金黑尾剑
Neon Sword
电光剑
Neon Wagtail Sword
电光黑尾剑
Black Sword
黑剑
Green Sword
绿剑
Green Wagtail Sword
绿黑尾剑
Pineapple Sword
凤梨剑
Golden Mickey Sword
金米奇剑
Red Mickey Sword
红米奇剑
Showa Sword
三色剑
White Wagtail Sword
熊猫剑
Cherry Red White Sword
樱桃红白剑
Cherry Red White Wagtail Sword
樱桃红白黑尾剑
Kohaku Sword
红白锦鲤剑 (红眼)
Red Cap Sword
红头剑 (红眼)
Red Lyretail Sword
红双剑
Red Wag Lyretail Sword
红黑尾双剑
Red Tuxedo Lyretail Sword
红燕尾双剑
Black Lyretail Sword
黑双剑
Golden Lyretail Sword
金双剑

The swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) is a species of freshwater fish in family Poeciliidae of order Cyprinodontiformes. A live-bearer, it is closely related to the southern platyfish or "platy" (X. maculatus) and can crossbreed with it. It is native to an area of North and Central America stretching from Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Honduras.
The male green swordtail grows to a maximum overall length of 14 cm and the female to 16 cm. The name "swordtail" is derived from the elongated lower lobe of the male's caudal fin (tailfin). Sexual dimorphism is moderate, with the female being larger than the male, but lacking the "sword". The wild form is olive green in color, with a red or brown lateral stripe and speckles on the dorsal and, sometimes, caudal fins. The male's "sword" is yellow, edged in black below. Captive breeding has produced many color varieties, including black, red, and many patterns
The swordtail prefers swift-flowing, heavily-vegetated rivers and streams, but is also found in warm springs and canals. Omnivorous, its diet includes both plants and small crustaceans, insects, and annelid worms.
X. hellerii has become a nuisance pest as an introduced species in a number of countries. It has caused ecological damage because of its ability to rapidly reproduce in high numbers. Feral populations have established themselves in southern Africa, including Natal, Madagascar and eastern Transvaal in South Africa and Otjikoto Lake in Namibia. Significant populations have also established themselves along the east coast of Australia.
One of the most popular tropical aquarium fish, the swordtail has been bred into various hybrid forms for the aquarium hobby due to its hardiness and suitability for community tanks.
It is often designated X. helleri (with one "i"), but authorities consider this an orthographic error and the spelling with two "i"s is the valid specific epithet. Due to interbreeding with the southern platyfish or "platy", most swordtails in the aquarium are hybrids to some degree.
The males' beautiful, elongated caudal fins have been found to significantly affect their chances at mating. The presence of a well-endowed male spurs the maturity of females, while it inhibits the maturity of juvenile males in the vicinity of the well-endowed male.

劍尾魚适应能力强,性情温和,不易生病,可以和其他无攻击性的热带鱼混养。但劍尾魚喜欢跳跃,因此魚缸要加盖。否则容易跳出导致死亡。雌魚要比雄魚体形要大。雄鱼尾部有延长的剑状突出,有单剑,也有双剑。
红剑鱼是一种人工培育的品种,是劍尾魚经杂交选育的,通体红色,尾剑一般镶有黑边,十分美丽。
剑尾鱼别名剑鱼。成鱼体长可达10厘米,通体橄榄色,鳞片边缘褐色,两侧中部有一条深红色条纹,从鳃后直至尾部,条纹上下有浅蓝色镶边。雄鱼尾鳍下端延长似剑,其长度超过体长,剑尾绿色或橙色,边缘黑色,背鳍上有红斑。雌鱼色泽较雄鱼逊色,无剑尾。剑尾鱼在水温20—25℃,弱酸性、中性或微碱性水中都能正常生长和繁殖,最适生长水温为21—26℃,杂食性,性格温和,易和别的热带鱼混养。剑尾鱼6~8月龄性成熟,每隔4~5周繁殖1次,每次产鱼苗20~30尾,适宜繁殖的水质为pH7—8.0,硬度10~15度。剑尾鱼的生理发育有性逆转现象,完成性转化的鱼具有雄性的习性和功能,繁殖方法与孔雀鱼相似。
剑尾鱼与月光鱼杂交,经过人工不断选优培育,可得到红剑、黄剑、鸳鸯剑等不同花色品种,尾鳍有单剑,也有双剑(尾鳍上下端都延长)。杂交后的品种,如红剑,生长快,体格强壮,易饲养,又更具有观赏价值。

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